VLibrary.info Logo

“A profession also has a responsibility, both to the public and its members, to develop and employ a vocabulary for expressing the fundamental concepts on which its discipline is based.” Neville Holmes, The Great Term Robbery.

SELECTED DEFINITIONS RELATING TO INFORMATION

Data Information Knowledge Library

Data: "In computational systems data are the coded invariances. In human discourse data are that which is stated, for instance, by informants in an empirical study."

Dr. Hanne Albrechtsen, Institute of Knowledge Sharing, Copenhagen, Denmark. Definition 1 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “The symbols or characters of a language which have been selected and combined to convey information.”

Heartsill Young, Editor. The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science. Chicago : American Library Association (1983). Page 66

Data "Datum is the representation of concepts or other entities, fixed in or on a medium in a form suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing by human beings or by automated systems [Wellisch, H.H. (1996). Abstracting, indexing, classification, thesaurus construction: A glossary. Port Aransas, TX: American Society of Indexers]”

Prof. Elsa Barber, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Definition 2 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: Datum n., pl. data. information or fact. 1646, in plural data, borrowing of Latin datum (thing) given, past participle (neuter) of dare give; see DATE1 time. ”

The Barnhart Concise Dictionary of Etymology / edited by Robert K. Barnhart. New York : HarperCollins Publishers, c1995. Page 419.

Data: “Data is a symbol set that is quantified and/or qualified.”

Prof. Aldo de Albuquerque Barreto, Brazilian Institute for Information in Science and Technology, Brazil. Definition 3 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.]

Data: “Data are sensory stimuli that we perceive through our senses.”

Prof. Shifra Baruchson–Arbib, Bar Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel. Definition 4 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.]

Data: “Datum is every thing or every unit that could increase the human knowledge or could allow to enlarge our field of scientific, theoretical or practical knowledge, and that can be recorded, on whichever support, or orally handed. Data can arouse information and knowledge in our mind."

Prof. Maria Teresa Biagetti, University of Rome 1, Italy. Definition 5 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data are the basic individual items of numeric or other information, garnered through observation; but in themselves, without context, they are devoid of information.”

Dr. Quentin L. Burrell, Isle of Man International Business School, Isle of Man. Definition 7 on p. 481 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-49

Data: “ Atomic Data: Lowest level of detail (such as number of goods sold) from which the aggregate data (such as a daily sales summary) is computed.

Business Dictionary. Copied September 1, 2020 from http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/atomic-data.html

Data: “According to Stonier (1993, 1997), data is a series of disconnected facts and observations. These may be converted to information by analyzing, cross-referring, selecting, sorting, summarizing, or in some way organizing the data. Patterns of information, in turn, can be worked up into a coherent body of knowledge. Knowledge consists of an organized body of information, such information patterns forming the basis of the kinds of insights and judgments which we call wisdom. The above conceptualization may be made concrete by a physical analogy (Stonier, 1993): consider spinning fleece into yarn, and then weaving yarn into cloth. The fleece can be considered analogous to data, the yarn to information and the cloth to knowledge. Cutting and sewing the cloth into a useful garment is analogous to creating insight and judgment (wisdom). This analogy emphasizes two important points: (1) going from fleece to garment involves, at each step, an input of work, and (2) at each step, this input of work leads to an increase in organization, thereby producing a hierarchy of organization.”

Prof. Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic, Mälardalen University, Västerås/Eskilstuna, Sweden). Definition 12 on p. 482 in Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “The corpus of information....consists of two types of information - non-data and data. Non-data is nonnumeric.... Data, on the other hand, is numeric, highly formatted and results from analysis.”

Dolan, 1969, p. 41.” “The Role of the Information Scientist,” in International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, vol. 1, (1969), pp. 39-50. Cited in The Study of Information, Interdisciplinary Messages, p. 646. “There are writers who insist that data consist entirely of numbers. (FOOTNOTE 6: “The corpus of information....consists of two types of information - non-data and data. Non-data is non-numeric....Data, on the other hand, is numeric, highly formatted and results from analysis.” Dolan, 1969, p. 41.)”

Data: “Datum is a unique piece of content related to an entity.”

Prof. Henri Dou, University of Aix-Marseille III, France. Definition 13 on p. 482 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: "Data are a set of symbols representing a perception of raw facts (i.e., following Debons, Horne, and Cronenweth (1988), events from which inferences or conclusions can be drawn).“

Prof. Nicolae Dragulanescu, Polytechnics University of Bucharest, Romania. Definition 14 on page 482 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493. Debons, A., Horne, E., and Cronenweth, S. (1988). Information science: An integrated view. New York: G.K. Hall.

Data: "Here, data typically means the “raw” material obtained from observation (broadly understood, but not necessarily, as “sense impressions,” which is a key notion of empiricist philosophy). Such data is typically quantitative, presented in numbers and figures.

Prof. Hamid Ekbia, University of Redlands, Redlands, CA. Definition 15 on page 482 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data are a string of symbols.”

Prof. Raya Fidel, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Definition 17 on page 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data elements that represent the lowest level of detail. For example, in a daily sales report, the individual items that are sold are atomic data, whereas roll ups such as invoice and summary totals from invoices are aggregate data. “

Genesys. Copied September 1, 2020 from https://docs.genesys.com/Glossary:Atomic_Data#:~:text=Data%20elements%20that%20represent%20the,from%20invoices%20are%20aggregate%20data.

Data: “Data are representations of facts about the world.”

Dr. H.M. Gladney, HMG Consulting, McDonald, PA. Definition 19 on page 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data is one or more kinds of energy waves or particles (light, heat, sound, force, electromagnetic) selected by a conscious organism or intelligent agent on the basis of a pre- existing frame or inferential mechanism in the organism or agent.”

Prof. Glynn Harmon, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX) Definition 20 on page 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data are facts and statistics that can be quantified, measured, counted, and stored.”

Dr. Donald Hawkins, Information Today, Medford, NJ. Definition 21 on p. 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “…that which is recorded as symbols from which other symbols may be produced”

Hayes RM. Information science in librarianship. Libri, v. 19, no. 3, 1969: 216-36.

Data: “Data are dynamic objects of cultural experience having the aspect of being meaning-neutral and a dual nature of description and instruction.”

Mr. Ken Herold, Hamilton College, Clinton, NY. Definition 23 on page 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data are the raw observations about the world collected by scientists and others, with a minimum of contextual interpretation.”

Prof. William Hersh, Oregon Health Science University, Portland, OR. Definition 24 on page 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493

Data: “A general term for quantitative or numerically encoded information, particularly used for information stored in a database. The word is, however, frequently used in a casual way with a sense not especially different from ‘information ‘, as, for instance, in a phrase like ‘biological data ‘.

International Encyclopedia of Information and Library Science, p. 120.

Data: (pl.): The representation of information in a formalised manner suitable for communication, interpretation and processing, generally by a computer system. Note: the term ‘raw data’ refers to unprocessed information."

Glossary by the International Records Management Trust, at http:// www.irmt.org/documents/educ_training/educ_resource/IRMT_ed_rec_glossary.doc

Data: “Data are atomic facts, basic elements of “truth,” without interpretation or greater context. It is related to things we sense.”

Prof. Donald Kraft, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA. Definition 25 on p. 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Datum (in our sector mainly electronic) is the conventional representation, after coding (using ASCII, for example), of information.”

Prof. Yves François Le Coadic, National Technical University, Lyon, France. Definition 27 on page 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data are commonly seen as simple, isolated facts, though products of intellectual activity in their rough shape.”

Dr. Jo Link-Pezet, Urfist, and University of Social Sciences, France. Definition 28 on page 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493

Data:“Data are formalized parts (i.e., digitalized contents) of sociocultural information potentionally proccessable by technical facilities which disregard the cognitive process and that is why it is necessary to provide them with meanings from outside (i.e., they are objective).”

Mr. Michal Lorenz, Masaryk University in Brno, Czech Republic). Definition 29 on page 484-5 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: "Data", as the plural form of the Latin word "datum", means "things that have been given." It is, therefore, an apt term for the sort of information-as-thing that has been processed in some way for use. Commonly "data" denotes whatever records are stored in a computer. (See Machlup (1983, p. 646-649) for a discussion of the use and mis-use of the term "data".)

Information as Thing, M. Buckland, 1991

Data: “Data are perceptible or perceived — if and when the signal can be interpreted by the ‘user’—attributes of physical, biological, social or conceptual entities.”

Prof. Michel J. Menou, Knowledge and ICT management consultant, France. Definition 30 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data are sets of characters, symbols, numbers, and audio/visual bits that are represented and/or encountered in raw forms. Inherently, knowledge is needed to decipher data and turn them into information.”

Prof. Haidar Moukdad, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Definition 31 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58,479-493.

Data: “A subset of information in an electronic format that allows it to be retrieved or transmitted.”

Committee on National Security Systems Instruction Number 4009, “National Information Assurance Glossary,” April 26, 2010

Data:“Data are raw material of information, typically numeric.”

Prof. Charles Oppenheim, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK. Definition 32 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data are sets of symbols representing captured evidence of activities, transactions, and events.”

Miranda L. Pao, (1989) Concepts of Information Retreival, Englewood, Colorado. Libraries Unlimited, Inc. Page 10.

Data: “Datum is an object or crude fact perceived by the subject, non-constructed nor elaborated in the consciousness, without passing through neither analysis processes nor evaluation for its transfer as information.”

Prof. Lena Vania Pinheiro, Brazilian Institute for Information in Science and Technology, Brazil. Definition 33 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data are primitive symbolic entities, whose meaning depend on it integration within a context that allow their understanding by an interpreter.” [(Belkin, N.J., and Robertson, S.E. (1976). Information science and the phenomenon of information. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 27, 197–204] [Blair, D.C. (2002). Knowledge management: Hype, hope or help? Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 53(12), 1019–1028)]

Prof. Maria Pinto, University of Granada, Spain. Definition 34 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data, information, knowledge, message. I am unable to understand why data, information, knowledge and message are placed on the same level of analysis. I would suggest considering message as the “vehicle” carrying either data or information (which can be taken as synonymous).”

Prof. Roberto Poli, University of Trento, Italy. Definition 35 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493]

Data: “Data are a representation of facts or ideas in a formalized manner, and hence capable of being communicated or manipulated by some process. So: data is related to facts and machines. (Holmes, N. (2001). The great term robbery. Computer, 34(5), 94–96.).”

Prof. Ronald Rousseau, KHBO, and University of Antwerp. Definition 36 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493

Data: “Datum is a quantifiable fact that can be repeatedly measured.”

Mr. Scott Seaman, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO. [Definition 37 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data are raw evidence, unprocessed, eligible to be processed to produce knowledge.”

Prof. Richard Smiraglia, Long Island University, Brookville, NY. Definition 38 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493

Data: “Data are discrete items of information that I would call facts on some subject or other, not necessarily set within a fully worked out framework.”

Prof. Paul Sturges, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK) [Definition 39 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493

Data: “In a data warehouse, atomic data is the lowest level of detail. Atomic data provides the base data for all data transformations.

WhatIs. Copied September 1, 2020 from https://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/atomic-data

Data: “Sometimes a distinction is made between the mechanistic representation of the symbols, which is called data,’ and the meaning attributed to the symbols, which is called ‘information’.

Teichroew, 1978, p. 658.” Footnote 11 on page 648 of The Study of Information, Interdisciplinary Messages, p. 647. Teichroew, D., “Information Systems,” in Encyclopedia of Computer Science (New York: Petrocelli/ Charter, 1978), pp. 657-660.

Data: “Data are facts that are the result of observation or measurement.

Landry, B.C., Mathis, B.A., Meara, N.M., Rush, J.E., and Young, C.E. (1970). Definition of some basic terms in computer and information science, Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 24(5), 328–342.” Prof. Carol Tenopir, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN. Definition 40 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data are unprocessed, unrelated raw facts or artifacts.”

Joanne Twining, Intertwining.org, a virtual information consultancy, USA. Definition 41 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: A representation by signs of facts, concepts or instructions in a formalized manner suitable for ‘communication’ interpretation or processing by humans or by automatic means.”

Wersig, G., Neveling U. Terminology of documentation : a selection of 1200 basic terms published in English, French, German, Russian, and Spanish. Paris : The Unesco Press; 1976. Page 72.

Data: “Data are representations of facts and raw material of information.”

Prof. Anna da Soledade Vieira, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Definition 42 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “ Raw data refers to any data object that hasn’t undergone thorough processing, either manually or through automated computer software. Raw data may be gathered from various processes and IT resources. Raw data is also known as source data, primary data or atomic data. “

Techopedia. Copied September 1, 2020 from https://www.techopedia.com/definition/1230/raw-data.

Data: “ Raw data is unprocessed computer data. This information may be stored in a file, or may just be a collection of numbers and characters stored on somewhere in the computer's hard disk. For example, information entered into a database is often called raw data. The data can either be entered by a user or generated by the computer itself. Because it has not been processed by the computer in any way, it is considered to be “raw data.“ To continue the culinary analogy, data that has been processed by the computer is sometimes referred to as “cooked data.“ ”

TechTerms. Copied September 1, 2020 from https://techterms.com/definition/rawdata

Data: “Data are alphabetic or numeric signs, which without context do not have any meaning.”

Prof. Irene Wormell, Swedish School of Library and Information Science in Boräs, Sweden. Definition 43 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data are artifacts that reflect a phenomenon in natural or social world in the form of figures, facts, plots, etc.”

Prof. Yishan Wu, Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (ISTIC), Beijing, China. Definition 44 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “The word “data” is commonly used to refer to records or recordings encoded for use in computer, but is more widely used to refer to statistical observations and other recordings or collections of evidence.”

Definition 6 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data is the plural of datum, although the singular form is rarely used. Purists who remember their first-year Latin may insist on using a plural verb with data, but they forget that English grammar permits collective nouns. Depending on the context, data can be used in the plural or as a singular word meaning a set or collection of facts. Etymologically, data, as noted, is the plural of datum, a noun formed from the past participle of the Latin verb dare–to give. Originally, data were things that were given (accepted as “true”). A data element, d, is the smallest thing which can be recognized as a discrete element of that class of things named by a specific attribute, for a given unit of measure with a given precision of measurement (Rush and Davis, 2007; Landry and Rush, 1970; Yovits and Ernst, 1970).”

Page 481 in Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Raw data (sometimes called source data or atomic data) is data that has not been processed for use. [In the spirit of Tom Stonier’s definition—Data: a series of disconnected facts and observations] Here “unprocessed” might be understood in a sense that no specific effort has been made to interpret or understand the data. They are the result of some observation or measurement process, which has been recorded as “facts of the world.” The word data is the plural of Latin datum, “something given”, which one also could call “atomic facts. Information is the end product of data processing. Knowledge is the end product of information processing. In much the same way as raw data are used as input, and processed in order to get information, the information itself is used as input for a process that results in knowledge.”

Page 482 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data can be defined as a class of information objects, made up of units of binary code that are intended to be stored, processed, and transmitted by digital computers. As such, data consists of information in a narrow sense—i.e., as inscribed in binary code, units of data are not likely to be immediately meaningful to a human being. But units of data, as “informational building blocks,” when collected and processed properly, can form information in the broader sense (see below), i.e., that is more likely to be meaningful to a human being (as sense-making beings).”

Cited on p. 482 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: "It depends on your framework. If you are a Kantian, it is the foundation for the a priori categories of the understanding. If you are a computer programmer it is preprocessed information (data collected according to some algorithm for some purpose) or post-processed information (e.g., tables of such information). In this latter case data cannot be defined apart from information, because it is dependent on it. If you are a biologist, it might be stimuli, but these scientific approaches are built on a faulty understanding of perception (e.g., perception is sensations (i.e., stimuli) glued together—which is false)."

Cited on p. 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data are observations and measurements you make on objects (artifacts, sites, seeds, bones) and on their contexts. Data are theory-laden. Regarding the theory of knowledge organization we may say that knowledge is not organized by elements called data combined or processed according to some algorithmic procedure. What data are is domain specific and theory-laden. At the most general level what is seen as data is depending of the epistemological view that one subscribes to.”

Cited on p. 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data are primitive symbolic entities, whose meaning depend on it integration within a context that allow their understanding by an interpreter. Information is the intentional composition of data by a sender with the goal of modifying the knowledge state of an interpreter or receiver. Knowledge is the intelligent information processing by the receiver and it consequent incorporation to the individual or social memory [(Belkin, N.J., and Robertson, S.E. (1976). Information science and the phenomenon of information. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 27, 197–204] [Blair, D.C. (2002). Knowledge management: Hype, hope or help? Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 53(12), 1019–1028)]”

Prof. Maria Pinto, University of Granada, Spain. Definition 34 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data Element: 1. A basic unit of information built on standard structures having a unique meaning and distinct units or values. 2. In electronic recordkeeping, a combination of characters or bytes referring to one separate item of information, such as name, address, or age.

JP 1-0 - DoD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, Department of Defense, at https://www.jcs.mil/Portals/36/Documents/Doctrine/pubs/dictionary.pdf

Datum: "sing. or pl. n. (datum, sing.) ~ Facts, ideas, or discrete pieces of information, especially when in the form originally collected and unanalyzed. Notes: Traditionally a plural noun, data - rather than datum - is now commonly used with a singular verb. Data often is used to refer to information in its most atomized form, as numbers or facts that have not been synthesized or interpreted, such as the initial readings from a gauge or obtained from a survey. In this sense, data is used as the basis of information, the latter distinguished by recognized patterns or meaning in the data. The phrase 'raw data' may be used to distinguish the original data from subsequently 'refined data'. Data is independent of any medium in which it is captured. Data is intangible until it has been recorded in some medium. Even when captured in a document or other form, the content is distinct from the carrier.

At https://www2.archivists.org/glossary/terms/d/data

Document: "A unit consisting of a data medium, the data recorded on it, and the meaning assigned to the data."

Wersig, G., Neveling U. Terminology of documentation : a selection of 1200 basic terms published in English, French, German, Russian, and Spanish. Paris : The Unesco Press; 1976. Page 89.

Information: "Information is related to meaning or human intention. In computational systems information is the contents of databases, the web, etc. In human discourse systems information is the meaning of statements as they are intended by the speaker/writer and understood/misunderstood by the listener/reader."

Dr. Hanne Albrechtsen, Institute of Knowledge Sharing, Copenhagen, Denmark. Definition 1 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “All ideas, facts, and imaginative works of the mind which have been communicated, recorded, published and/or distributed formerly or informally in any format.”

Heartsill Young, Editor. The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science. Chicago : American Library Association (1983). Page 117

Information: “Information is (1) a message used by a sender to represent one or more concepts within a communication process, intended to increase knowledge in recipients. (2) A message recorded in the text of a document.”

Prof. Elsa Barber, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Definition 2 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is a set of significant signs that has the ability to create knowledge . . . The essence of the information phenomenon has been characterized as the occurrence of a communication process that takes place between the sender and the recipient of the message. Thus, the various concepts of information tend to concentrate on the origin and the end point of this communication process."

Prof. Aldo de Albuquerque Barreto, Brazilian Institute for Information in Science and Technology, Brazil. Definition 3 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is data that has been processed into a form that is meaningful to the recipient (Davis and Olson, 1985). (Davis, G.B., and Olson, M.H. (1985). Management information systems. New York: McGraw Hill).”

Prof. Shifra Baruchson–Arbib, Bar Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel. Definition 4 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “In fact, what we mean by information - the elementary unit of information - is a difference which makes a difference, and is able to make a difference because the neural pathways along which it travels and is continuously transformed are themselves provided with energy.”

Steps to an Ecology of Mind. by Gregory Bateson, p. 459.

Information: “From a semiotic viewpoint, information, or more strictly any communication of information, can be seen to have four distinct aspects: empiric, dealing with technical and physical aspects; syntactic, dealing with grammar and language; semantic, dealing with meaning; and pragmatic, dealing with context, use and consequence (see, for example, Libenau and Backhouse [1]).”

Bawden, David. The Shifting Terminologies of Information. Aslib Proceedings, Vol 53, Iss. 3, (Mar 2001): 93.

Information “Information is the change determined in the cognitive heritage of an individual. Information always develops inside of a cognitive system, or a knowing subject. Signs that constitute the words by which a document or a book has made are not information. Information starts when signs are in connection with an interpreter (Morris, C.W. (1938). Foundations of the theory of signs. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.)."

Prof. Maria Teresa Biagetti, University of Rome 1, Italy. Definition 5 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information “Information is that which is conveyed, and possibly amenable to analysis and interpretation, through data and the context in which the data are assembled.”

Dr. Quentin L. Burrell, Isle of Man International Business School, Isle of Man. Definition 7 on p. 481 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is data that has been processed into a form that is meaningful to the recipient.”

Davis, G.B., and Olson, M.H. (1985). Management information systems. New York: McGraw Hill. Cited on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information Data “may be converted to information by analyzing, cross-referring, selecting, sorting, summarizing, or in some way organizing the data.”

Prof. Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic, Mälardalen University, Västerås/ Eskilstuna, Sweden. Definition 12 on p. 482 in Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493

Information “Information is the sum of the data related to an entity.”

Prof. Henri Dou, University of Aix-Marseille III, France. Definition 13 on p. 482 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493

Information: “Information is organized data (answering the following basic questions: What? Who? When? Where?).”

Prof. Nicolae Dragulanescu, Polytechnics University of Bucharest, Romania. Cited on page 482 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is data that is communicated, has meaning, has an effect, has a goal.”

Prof. Raya Fidel, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Definition 17 on p. 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493

Information: “Information is data organized according to an ontology that defines the relationships between some set of topics. Information can be communicated.”

Dr. H.M. Gladney, HMG Consulting, McDonald, PA. Definition 19 on page 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Informtion: “Information is an organism’s or an agent’s active or latent inferential frame that guides the selection of data for its own further development or construction.”

Prof. Glynn Harmon, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX. Definition 20 on page 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is data that has been categorized, counted, and thus given meaning, relevance, or purpose.”

Dr. Donald Hawkins, Information Today, Medford, NJ. Definition 21 on page 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is dynamic objects of cultural experience having the aspect of being belief-neutral and a dual nature of content and medium.”

Mr. Ken Herold, Hamilton College, Clinton, NY. Definition 23 on page 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is the aggregation of data to make coherent observations about the world.”

Prof. William Hersh, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR. Definition 24 on page 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493

Information: “Information is a set of facts with processing capability added, such as context, relationships to other facts about the same or related objects, implying an increased usefulness. Information provides meaning to data.”

Prof. Donald Kraft, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LO. Definition 26 on page 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is knowledge recorded on a spatiotemporal support.”

Prof. Yves François Le Coadic, National Technical University, Lyon, France. Definition 27 on page 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is a relationship between an inner arrangement (i.e., a priori set structure (Sˇmajs and Krob, 2003), implicate order [FOOTNOTE 3: The concepts of implicate and explicate orders are explained in Bohm (1980).] of a system and its present embodiment in reality (explicate order) including mediating memory processes (i.e., historically dependent processes) releasing the meaning.”

Mr. Michal Lorenz, Masaryk University in Brno, Czech Republic. Definition 29 on pages 484-5 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is recorded and organized data that can be communicated (Porat, M.V., and Rubin, M. (1977). The information economy: Definition and measurement (OT Special publication, Vol. 1, pp. 77–120). Washington DC: Office of Telecommunications, U.S. Department of Commerce.) However, it is advisable to distinguish between the various states or conditions of information (e.g. information-as an object [(Buckland, M. (1991b). Information as thing. Journal of the American Society of Information Science, 42(5), 351–360.)], or semantic, syntactic and paradigmatic states [(Menou, M.J. (1995). The impact of information (Part 2): Concepts of information and its value. Information Processing and Management, 31(4), 479–490).”

Prof. Michel J. Menou, Knowledge and ICT management consultant, France. Definition 30 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is facts, figures, and other forms of meaningful representations that when encountered by or presented to a human being are used to enhance his/her understanding of a subject or related topics.”

Prof. Haidar Moukdad, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Definition 31 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58,479-493.

Information: “Information is data which is collected together with commentary, context and analysis so as to be meaningful to others.”

Prof. Charles Oppenheim, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK. Definition 32 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493

Information: “Information can be viewed as that which carries ideas, or as selected and manipulated data..”

Miranda L. Pao, (1989) Concepts of InformationRetreival, Englewood, Colorado. Libraries Unlimited, Inc. Page 10.

Information: “Information is a phenomenon generated from knowledge and integrated therein, analyzed and interpreted to achieve the transfer process of message (i.e., meaningful content) and the cognitive transformations of people and communities, in a historical, cultural and social context.”

Prof. Lena Vania Pinheiro, Brazilian Institute for Information in Science and Technology, Brazil. Definition 33 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is the intentional composition of data by a sender with the goal of modifying the knowledge state of an interpreter or receiver.”

Prof. Maria Pinto, University of Granada, Spain. Definition 34 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Data, information, knowledge, message. I am unable to understand why data, information, knowledge and message are placed on the same level of analysis. I would suggest considering message as the “vehicle” carrying either data or information (which can be taken as synonymous).

Prof. Roberto Poli, University of Trento, Italy. Definition 35 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is the meaning that a human assigns to data by means of the known conventions used in its representation. Information is related to meaning and humans (Holmes, N. (2001). The great term robbery. Computer, 34(5), 94–96.)”

Prof. Ronald Rousseau, KHBO, and University of Antwerp. Definition 36 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is an organized collection of disparate datum.”

Mr. Scott Seaman, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO. Definition 37 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is the process of becoming informed; it is dependent on knowledge, which is processed data. Knowledge perceived, becomes information.”

Prof. Richard Smiraglia, Long Island University, Brookville, NY. Definition 38 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is facts and ideas communicated (or made available for communication).”

Prof. Paul Sturges, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK. Definition 39 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is meaningful data. Or data arranged or interpreted in a way to provide meaning.”

Prof. Carol Tenopir, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN. Definition 40 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is data or knowledge processed into relations (between data and recipient).”

Joanne Twining, Intertwining.org, a virtual information consultancy, USA. Definition 41 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is data organized to produce meaning.”

Prof. Anna da Soledade Vieira, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Definition 42 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “The physicist and philosopher Carl-Friedrich von Weizsacker conceives of information as a twofoldcategory: (1)information is only that which is understood; (2) information is only that which generatesinformation (Weizsacker, 1974” - [Weizsacker, C. F. von (1974).Die Einheit der Natur [The unity of nature].Munich, Germany: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag.

The Concept of Information, Rafael Capurro P. 362.

Information: “Information is a set of significant signs that has the ability to create knowledge . . . The essence of the information phenomenon has been characterized as the occurrence of a communication process that takes place between the sender and the recipient of the message. Thus, the various concepts of information tend to concentrate on the origin and the end point of this communication process."

Wersig, G., Neveling U. Terminology of documentation : a selection of 1200 basic terms published in English, French, German, Russian, and Spanish. Paris : The Unesco Press; 1976. Page 72.

Definition on page 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493]

Information: “Information is a set of symbols that represent knowledge. Information is what context creates/gives to data. It is cognitive. Normally it is understood as a new and additional element in collecting data and information for planned action.”

Prof. Irene Wormell, Swedish School of Library and Information Science in Boräs, Sweden. Definition 43 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is anything communicated among living things. It is one of the three mainstays supporting the survival and evolution of life, along with energy and materials.”

Prof. Yishan Wu, Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (ISTIC), Beijing, China. Definition 44 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “The word “information” is used to refer to a number of different phenomena. These phenomena have been classified into three groupings: (1) Anything perceived as potentially signifying something (e.g. printed books); (2) The process of informing; and (3) That which is learned from some evidence or communication. All three are valid uses (in English) of the term “information.” I personally am most comfortable with no. 1, then with no. 3, but acknowledge that others have used and may use no 2.”</p>

Definition 6 on pp. 480-1 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “The verb ‘inform’ normally is used in the sense to communicate (i.e., to report, relate, or tell) and comes from the Latin verb informare, which meant to shape (form) an idea. Data is persistent while information is transient, depending on context and the interpretation of the recipient. Information is data received through a communication process that proves of value in making decisions.”

Cited on page 481 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information represents a state of awareness (consciousness) and the physical manifestations they form. Information, as a phenomena, represents both a process and a product; a cognitive/affective state, and the physical counterpart (product of) the cognitive/affective state. The counterpart could range from a scratch of a surface, movement (placement)of a rock; a gesture(movement) speech(sound), written document, etc. (requirement). Information answers questions of what, where, when and who and permutations thereof.“

Cited on page 482 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Collocations of data (information in the narrow sense — see above) that thereby become meaningful to human beings—e.g., as otherwise opaque units of binary code are collected and processed into numbers, artificial and natural languages, graphic objects that convey significance and meaning, etc. Such collocations of data can be made meaningful by human beings (as sense-making beings) especially as such data collocations/information connect with, illuminate, and are illuminated by still larger cognitive frameworks—most broadly, worldviews that further incorporate knowledge and wisdom (see below). On this definition, information can include but is not restricted to data. On the contrary, especially as Borgmann (1999) argues, there are other forms of information (natural, cultural) that are not fully reducible to data as can be transmitted, processed, and/or produced by computers and affiliated technologies.”

Cited on page 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is resources useful or relevant or functional for information seekers.”

Cited on page 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is a multi-layered concept with Latin roots (‘informatio’ = to give a form) that go back to Greek ontology and epistemology (Plato’s concept of ‘idea’ and Aristotle’s concepts of ‘morphe’ but also to such concepts as ‘typos’ and ‘prolepsis’) (See Capurro, 1978; Capurro and Hjøerland, 2003). The use of this concept in information science is at the first sight highly controversial but it basically refers to the everyday meaning (since Modernity): “the act of communicating knowledge” (OED). I would suggest to use this definition as far as it points to the phenomenon of message that I consider the basic one in information science.”

Page 481 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information Science: "The study of the properties, structure and transmission of information, and the development of methods for the useful organization of data and dissemination of information.”

Terminology of documentation : a selection of 1200 basic terms published in English, French, German, Russian, and Spanish. WersigG, Neveling U. Paris : The Unesco Press, 1976. Page 54.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is embodied in humans as the capacity to understand, explain and negotiate concepts, actions and intentions.”

Dr. Hanne Albrechtsen, Institute of Knowledge Sharing, Copenhagen, Denmark. Definition 1 on page 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge “Knowledge is knowing, familiarity gained by experience; person’s range of information; a theoretical or practical understanding of; the sum of what is known.”

Prof. Elsa Barber, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Definition 2 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493..

Knowledge “Knowledge is information that has been appropriate by the user. When information is adequately assimilated, it produces knowledge, modifies the individual’s mental store of information and benefits his development and that of the society in which he lives. Thus, as the mediating agent in the production of knowledge, the information, qualifies itself, in form and substance, as significant structures able to generate knowledge for the individual and his group.”

Prof. Aldo de Albuquerque Barreto, Brazilian Institute for Information in Science and Technology, Brazil. Definition 3 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge “Knowledge is what has understood and evaluated by the knower.”

Prof. Shifra Baruchson–Arbib, Bar Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel. Definition 4 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge “Knowledge is structured and organized information that has developed inside of a cognitive system or is part of the cognitive heritage of an individual (based on Peirce, C.S. (1958). Writings of Charles S. Peirce. A chronological edition. A.W. Burke (Ed.) (Vol. VII–VIII). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.; Hartshorne & Weiss, 1931).

Prof. Maria Teresa Biagetti, University of Rome 1, Italy. Definition 5 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge “The word “knowledge” is best used to refer to what someone knows, which is, in effect, what they believe, including belief that some of the beliefs of others should not be believed. By extension the word “knowledge” is used more loosely for (1) what social groups know collectively; and (2) what is in principle knowable because it has been recorded somehow and could be recovered even though, at any given time, no individual knows (or remembers) it.”

Prof. Michael Buckland, University of California, Berkeley, CA. Definition 6 on page 481 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge “Knowledge is the general understanding and awareness garnered from accumulated information, tempered by experience, enabling new contexts to be envisaged.”

Dr. Quentin L. Burrell, Isle of Man International Business School, Isle of Man. Definition 7 on p. 481 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge “Knowledge is that which is known, and it exists in the mind of the knower in electrical pulses. Alternatively, it can be disembodied into symbolic representations of that knowledge (at this point becoming a particular kind of information, not knowledge). Strictly speaking, represented knowledge is information. Knowledge — that which is known — is by definition subjective, even when aggregated to the level of social, or public, knowledge — which is the sum, in a sense, of individual “knowings.” Data and information can be studied as perceived by and “embodied” (known) by the person or as found in the world outside the person...”

Prof. Thomas A. Childers, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA. Definition 9 on p. 481 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge “Knowledge involves both data and the relationships among data elements or their sets. This organization of data based on relationships is what enables one to draw generalizations from the data so organized, and to formulate questions about which one wishes to acquire more data. That is, knowledge begets the quest for knowledge, and it arises from verified or validated ideas (Sowell, 1996).”

Prof.Charles H. Davis, Indiana University. Definition 10 on page 482 in Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge “Knowledge consists of an organized body of information, such information patterns forming the basis of the kinds of insights and judgments which we call wisdom. The above conceptualization may be made concrete by a physical analogy (Stonier, 1993): consider spinning fleece into yarn, and then weaving yarn into cloth. The fleece can be considered analogous to data, the yarn to information and the cloth to knowledge. Cutting and sewing the cloth into a useful garment is analogous to creating insight and judgment (wisdom). This analogy emphasizes two important points: (1) going from fleece to garment involves, at each step, an input of work, and (2) at each step, this input of work leads to an increase in organization, thereby producing a hierarchy of organization.”

Prof. Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic, Mälardalen University, Västerås/Eskilstuna, Sweden. Definition 12 on p. 482 in Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge “Knowledge is understood information (answering following basic questions: why?, how?, for which purpose?).”

Prof. Nicolae Dragulanescu, Polytechnics University of Bucharest, Romania. Definition 14 on page 482 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493. [Cites Debons, A., Horne, E., and Cronenweth, S. (1988). Information science: An integrated view. New York: G.K. Hall.]

Knowledge “Knowledge is a personal/cognitive framework that makes it possible for humans to use information.”

Prof. Raya Fidel, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Definition 17 on page 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge “Knowledge is a set of conceptual structures held in human brains and only imperfectly represented by information that can be communicated. Knowledge cannot be communicated by speech or any form of writing, but can only be hinted at.”

Dr. H.M. Gladney, HMG Consulting, McDonald, PA. Definition 19 on page 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493

Knowledge “Knowledge is one or more sets of relatively stable information. A Message is one or more inferred data sets gleaned from external or internal energetic reactions.”

Prof. Glynn Harmon, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX. Definition 20 on page 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge “Knowledge is information that has been given meaning and taken to a higher level. Knowledge emerges from analysis, reflection upon, and synthesis of information. It is used to make a difference in an enterprise, learn a lesson, or solve a problem.”

Dr. Donald Hawkins, Information Today, Medford, NJ. Definition 21 on page 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge “Knowledge is dynamic objects of cultural experience having the aspect of being action-neutral and a dual nature of abstracting to and from the world.”

Mr. Ken Herold, Hamilton College, Clinton, NY. Definition 23 on p. 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge “Knowledge is the rules and organizing principles gleaned from data to aggregate it into information.”

Prof. William Hersh, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR. Definition 24 on page 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493

Knowledge “Knowledge is information with more context and understanding, perhaps with the addition of rules to extend definitions and allow inference.”

Prof. Donald Kraft, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA. Definition 26 on page 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge “Knowledge is the result of forming in mind an idea of something.”

Prof. Yves François Le Coadic, National Technical University, Lyon, France. Definition 27 on p. 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge “Knowledge is the appropriation of information in the process of learning, acting, interpreting. Knowledge is in the head of people, yet knowledge can be shared. Knowledge refers to the way information is used during the intellectual process.”

Dr. Jo Link-Pezet, Urfist, and University of Social Sciences, France. Definition 28 on page 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge “Knowledge is tacitly or consciously grasped and interiorized content of information related and meaningfully integrated into a unifying frame of experience among other information contents interiorized in the same way, the complex of which reflects subjective understanding of environment. Mistakes arise from integration of misinformation or from integration of contradictory information into a unifying frame of experience (the second leads to cognitive dissonance and motivates to seek another information).”

Mr. Michal Lorenz, Masaryk University in Brno, Czech Republic. Definition 29 on page 484-5 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge “Knowledge is information that is understood, further to its utilization, stored, retrievable and reusable under appropriate circumstances or conditions.”

Prof. Michel J. Menou, Knowledge and ICT management consultant, France. Definition 30 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge “Knowledge is a reservoir of information that is stored in the human mind. It essentially constitutes the information that can be “retrieved” from the human mind without the need to consult external information sources.”

Prof. Haidar Moukdad, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Definition 31 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58,479-493.

Knowledge “Knowledge is a combination of information and a person’s experience, intuition and expertise.”

Prof. Charles Oppenheim, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK. Definition 32 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is processed information which has produced a change in the intellectual framework of learning within an individual.”

Miranda L. Pao, (1989) Concepts of Information Retreival, Englewood, Colorado. Libraries Unlimited, Inc. Page 10.

Knowledge “Knowledge is a social and cognitive process formed by the passing or assimilated information to thought and to action.”

Prof. Lena Vania Pinheiro, Brazilian Institute for Information in Science and Technology, Brazil. Definition 33 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge “Knowledge is the intelligent information processing by the receiver and it consequent incorporation to the individual or social memory”

Prof. Maria Pinto, University of Granada, Spain. Definition 34 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST>, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge “Knowledge hints to either a systematic framework (e.g., laws, rules or regularities, that is higher-order “abstractions” from data) or what somebody or some community knows (“I know that you are married”). In this latter sense knowledge presents a “subjective” side.”

Prof. Roberto Poli, University of Trento, Italy. Definition 35 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge “Knowledge is apparently not reducible solely to information and data. The problem is to understand ‘what is lacking’, what must be added to information and data in order to achieve true knowledge. My claim is that the meaning of a sign is given by the position of the sign in a field of signs (in a space). On the other hand, the content of a sign is given by the position of the item (denoted by the sign) in a field of items. Data, information, meanings and contents cover the field of knowledge. This amounts to saying that we have knowledge when we know (1) which item is denoted by which sign, (2) the item’s proximal context, (3) the item’s distal contexts, (4) the sign’s position in the field of signs, (5) the item’s position in the field of items.”

Prof. Roberto Poli, University of Trento, Italy - Poli, R. (2001). ALWIS. Ontology for knowledge engineers. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Knowledge “Knowledge is the summation of information into independent concepts and rules that can explain relationships or predict outcomes.”

Mr. Scott Seaman, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO. Definition 37 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge “Knowledge is what is known, more than data, but not yet information. Recorded knowledge may be accessed in formal ways. Unrecorded knowledge is accessible in only chaotic ways.”

Prof. Richard Smiraglia, Long Island University, Brookville, NY. Definition 38 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge “Knowledge is the considered product of information. Selection as to what is valid and relevant is a necessary condition of the acquisition of knowledge.”

Prof. Paul Sturges, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK. Definition 39 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge “Knowledge is internalized or understood information that can be used to make decisions.”

Prof. Carol Tenopir, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN. Definition 40 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge “Knowledge is information scripted into relations with recipient experiences.”

Joanne Twining, Intertwining.org, a virtual information consultancy, USA. Definition 41 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge “Knowledge is meaningful content assimilated for use. The three entities can be viewed as hierarchical in terms of complexity, data being the simplest and knowledge, the most complex of the three. Knowledge is the product of a synthesis in our mind that can be conveyed by information, as one of many forms of its externalization and socialization.”

Prof. Anna da Soledade Vieira, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Definition 42 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge “Knowledge is enriched information by a person’s or a system’s own experience. It is cognitive based. Knowledge is not transferable, but through information we can communicate about it. (Note that the highest level of information processing is the generation of wisdom, where various kinds of knowledge are communicated and integrated behind an action.”

Prof. Irene Wormell, Swedish School of Library and Information Science in Boräs, Sweden. Definition 43 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge “Knowledge is a human construct, which categorize things, record significant events, and find causal relations among things and/or events, etc. in a systematic way.”

Prof. Yishan Wu, Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (ISTIC), Beijing, China. Definition 44 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge “Knowledge is ‘no-thing’ (contrary to “information-as-thing” as suggested by Michael Buckland, 1991a), i.e., it is the event of meaning selection of a (psychic/social) system from its ‘world’ on the basis of communication. The “act of communicating knowledge” (OED’s definition of information) is then to be understood as the act of making a meaning offer (=message) leading to understanding (and misunderstanding) on the basis of a selection of meaning (=information). To know is then to understand on the basis of making a difference between ‘message’ (or meaning offer) and ‘information’ (or meaning selection). Human knowledge is, as Popper states, basically conjectural. Or, to put it in hermeneutic terms: understanding is always biased, i.e., based on (implicit) pre-understanding. In more classical terms we distinguish following Aristotle between ‘empirical knowledge’ (or ‘know-how’ = ‘empeiria’) and explicit knowledge (or ‘know-that’, for instance, scientific knowledge or ‘episteme’).”

Page 481 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge “Knowledge represents a cognitive/affective state that finds definition in meaning and understanding. Knowledge is reflected in the questions of “how” and “why.” Knowledge extends the organism state of awareness (consciousness/ information). Knowledge can be given physical representation (presence) in the material products (technology) thereof (books, film, speech, etc.).”

Cited on page 482 in Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Languagenoun About 1280 langage what is said, talk, later language (about 1330); borrowed from Old French langage, from langue tongue, language, from Lating lingua TONGUE; for suffix see - AGE. The sense of speech of a nation, tongue, is first found in Middle English about 1300. The form with u developed through Anglo-French, from assimulation with French langue in middle English.”

The Barnhart Concise Dictionary of Etymology / edited by Robert K. Barnhart. New York : HarperCollins Publishers, c1995. Page 419.

Language “ A language consists of a vocabulary, semantics, syntax, and pragmatics.”

The Intellectual Foundation of Information Organization. Elaine Svenonius. Cambridge, Massachusetts. The MIT Press. 2000. Page 55.

Library: “Library as a collection of materials organized to provide physical bibliographical and intellectual access to group with a staff that is trained to provide services and program related to information needs of the target group.”

American Library Association : Definition and meaning. Copied February 4, 2014, at: http:// www.lisbdnet.com/library-definition-and-meaning/

Library: “The word "library" seems to be used in so many different aspects now, from the brick-andmortar public library to the digital library. Public libraries—and indeed, all libraries--are changing and dynamic places where librarians help people find the best source of information whether it's a book, a web site, or database entry.

American Library Association : Definition and meaning. Copied March 10, 2020 from http:// www.lisbdnet.com/library-definition-and-meaning/

Library: “In the strict sense of the term a “library” is a ‘collection of materials organized for use’. The word derives from the Latin word’ ‘liber’, a book. The latinized Greek word ‘bibliotheca’ is the origin of the word for ‘library’ in the Greek, Russian and Romance languages. There is a good reason to believe that the root concept of ‘library’ is deeply embedded in our ways of thinking about the world and coping with its problems. In its primary role as guardian of the social memory, there are many parallels with the ways in which human memory orders, stores and retrieves the information necessary for survival. The study of library history and its related disciplines bears witness that the instinct to preserve, the passion to collect, and the desire to control have been dominant influences in the genesis and growth of the library in the history of civilization.”

John Feather and Paul Sturges, editors. International Encyclopedia of Information and Library Science, second edition. London ; New York : Routledge, 2003

Library: "Library is an organization, or part of an organization, the main aim of which is to facilitate the use of such information resources, services and facilities as are required to meet the informational, research, educational, cultural or recreational needs of its users.”

International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA). Copied April 2, 2020 from https:// librarymap.ifla.org/images/files/librarymapoftheworld_definitions_en.pdf

Library: “1. A collection of materials organized to provide physical, bibliographic, and intellectual access to a target group , with a staff that is trained to provide services and programs related to the information needs of the target group. 2. In computer science, an organized collection of computer programs available to users of the machine.”

Heartsill Young, Editor. The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science. Chicago : American Library Association (1983). Page 130

Library A library is a data management system for documents frequently, though not necessarily, organized in a hierarchy of “folders” and “drawers.” Also called a “file cabinet.”

Gartner, Inc. Copied March 11, 2020 from https://www.gartner.com/en/information-technology/glossary/library

Library:“1) A collection of books and other literary material kept for reading, study and consultation. 2) A place, building, rooms, set apart for the keeping and use of a collection of books etc.”

Harrods librarian’s glossary and reference book. Copied March 11, 2020, from http://www.lisbdnet.com/library-definition-and-meaning/

Library: Library is an organization, or part of an organization, the main aim of which is to facilitate the use of such information resources, services and facilities as are required to meet the informational, research, educational, cultural or recreational needs of its users.

International Federation of Library Associations, LIBRARY MAP OF THE WORLD DEFINITIONS, copied March 11, 2020, from https://librarymap.ifla.org/images/files/librarymapoftheworld_definitions_en.pdf

Library: In Latin and Greek, the idea of a bookcase is represented by Bibliotheca and Bibliothēkē (Greek: βιβλιοθήκη): derivatives of these mean library in many modern languages, e.g. French bibliothèque.

The first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing—the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in Sumer, some dating back to 2600 BC. Private or personal libraries made up of written books appeared in classical Greece in the 5th century BC. In the 6th century, at the very close of the Classical period, the great libraries of the Mediterranean world remained those of Constantinople and Alexandria.

A library is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, a corporation, or a private individual. Public and institutional collections and services may be intended for use by people who choose not to—or cannot afford to—purchase an extensive collection themselves, who need material no individual can reasonably be expected to have, or who require professional assistance with their research. In addition to providing materials, libraries also provide the services of librarians who are experts at finding and organizing information and at interpreting information needs. Libraries often provide quiet areas for studying, and they also often offer common areas to facilitate group study and collaboration. Libraries often provide public facilities for access to their electronic resources and the Internet. Modern libraries are increasingly being redefined as places to get unrestricted access to information in many formats and from many sources. They are extending services beyond the physical walls of a building, by providing material accessible by electronic means, and by providing the assistance of librarians in navigating and analyzing very large amounts of information with a variety of digital tools.

Librarianship Studies & Information Technology. Copied March 11, 2020 from https://www.librarianshipstudies.com/2017/07/library.html

Library “A library is a public institution or establishment charged with the care of books, the duty of making them accessible those who require the use of them.”

Ranganathan, S.R. Copied March 11, 2020, from American Library Association (ALA), "Library :: Definition and meaning glossary of library and information science" from http://www.lisbdnet.com/library-definition-and-meaning/

Library "library From the Latin liber meaning "book" (in Greek and the Romance languages the corresponding term is bibliotheca). A collection or group of collections of books and/or other materials organized and maintained for use (reading, consultation, study, research, etc.). Institutional libraries, organized to facilitate access by a specific clientele, are staffed by librarians and other personnel trained to provide services to meet user needs. By extension, the room, building, or facility that houses such a collection, usually but not necessarily built for that purpose. Directory information on libraries is available alphabetically by country in World Guide to Libraries, a serial published by K. G. Saur. Two comprehensive worldwide online directories of library homepages are LibDex and Libweb. Abbreviated lib. See also: academic library, government library, public library, and special library. Also, a collective noun used by publishers, particularly during the Victorian period, for certain books published in series (example: Everyman’s Library). Also refers to a collection of computer programs or data files, or a set of ready-made reusable routines, sometimes called modules, that can be linked to a program at the time it is compiled, relieving the programmer of the necessity to repeat the code each time the routine is used in a program.

ODLIS: Online Dictionary of Library and Information Science. Copied March 11, 2020 from http://vlado.fmf.uni-lj.si/pub/networks/data/dic/odlis/odlis.pdf

Library n. ~ 1. A collection of published materials, including books, magazines, sound and video recordings, and other formats. - 2. A building used to house such a collection. - 3. Computing · Commonly used subroutines or functions collected for use in different programs.

Society of American Archivists. A Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology, Copied March 11, 2020 from https://www2.archivists.org/glossary

Library: "Any organized collection of printed books and periodicals or of any other graphic or audio-visual materials and the service of a staff to provide and facilitate the use of such materials as are required to meet the informational, research, educational or recreational needs of its users."

Wersig, G., Neveling U. Terminology of documentation : a selection of1200 basic terms published in English, French, German, Russian, andSpanish. Paris : The Unesco Press; 1976. Page 178.