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“A profession also has a responsibility, both to the public and its members, to develop and employ a vocabulary for expressing the fundamental concepts on which its discipline is based.” Neville Holmes, The Great Term Robbery.

SELECTED DEFINITIONS RELATING TO INFORMATION

Data Information Knowledge Library

Access Point: “A name, term, code, etc., under which a bibliographic record may be searched and identified. See also Heading.“

American Library Association. (2004) Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, Second Edition, 2002 Revision, 2004 Update. Chicago

Access Point: “A name, term, code, etc. under which a bibliographic record may be searched and identified.“

Lois Mai Chan, (1981) Cataloging and classification : an introduction, New York : McGraw Hill. Page 479.

Access Point: “1. A name, term, code, etc. under which a bibliographic record may be searched and identified. Compare with heading. (AACR2) 2. In computer-based information storage and retrieval, a field designated as a means of access to a record or file.“

Heartsill Young, Editor. The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science. Chicago : American Library Association (1983). Page 2

Access Point: “Access Point refers to a name, term, code, heading, word, phrase, etc., a unit of information representing a specific entity that can serve as a search key in information retrieval, under which a library catalog or bibliographic database may be searched and library materials may be identified and retrieved. Access points are the indexed elements of an authority or bibliographic records that helps make the record searchable and identifiable. In a catalog, index, or other organized systems some examples of access points are, author, title, name (person, family, corporate body, etc.), subjects (topical, geographical, etc.), classification or call number, and codes such as ISBN, etc. which are chosen by the cataloger or indexer, when creating a bibliographic, authority, or metadata record (a surrogate), to enable the retrieval of the record. In modern cataloging using advanced Integrated Library Systems (ILS), the machine-readable cataloging, almost any portion of the catalog record can serve as an access point. The advanced search of the Online Public Access Catalogs provides many options as access points.“

Salman Haider, Glossary of Library & Information Science. Librarianship Studies & Information Technology. Copied August 25, 2021 from: https://www.librarianshipstudies.com/2016/06/access-point.html

Access Point element (3.1.1.10) under which a bibliographic entry (3.7.2.17) may be searched and identified (3.2.1.26) EXAMPLE:Name, term, code (2) <data>, etc. Note 1 to entry: See also heading (2) <access point>, (3.7.3.01).

ISO 5127:2017(en) Information and documentation — Foundation and vocabulary. Copied 2022-01-04 from https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso-iec:11179:-4:ed-2:v1:en

Access Point: “Access to bibliographic records is provided through access points. Access points are specific pieces of information, such as author, title, or subject (subject headings). This standard information is common to all bibliographic records and is used to locate records or additional information.“

Elmer E. Rasmuson Library, University of Alaska Fairbanks. Copied November 30, 2020, from: https://library.uaf.edu/ls101-access-points

Access Point: “Based on the card catalog, an access point was any element of the record that resulted in a card being added to the catalog for access. Access points were headings that were filed alphabetically in the catalog. The access point concept was carried over in some computerized catalog software. In these catalogs, a user enters a left-anchored string and is returned a screen of alphabetically sorted catalog entries that appear before and after that string. The term "access point" is sometimes used to refer to any part of the bibliographic record that is searchable, in particular when speaking of fielded searches in OPACs.“

Library terminology informally explained, W3C. Copied November 30, 2020 from: https://www.w3.org/2001/sw/wiki/Library_terminology_informally_explained#access_point

Administrative Metadata: See also "Descriptive Metadata" and "Structural Metadata."

Administrative Metadata: “Data about an information resource primarily intended to facilitate its management, for example, information about how and when a document or digital object was created, the person or entity responsible for controlling access to and archiving its content, any restrictions on access or use, and any control or processing activities performed in relation to it. Compare with descriptive metadata and structural metadata. The concept of administrative metadata is subdivided into: Rights metadata - facilitates management of legal rights in a resource (copyright, licenses, permissions, etc.) Preservation metadata - facilitates management of processes involved in ensuring the long-term survival and usability of a resource Technical metadata - documents the creation and characteristics of digital files.“

Glossary of Technical Services Terms. Association for Library Collections and Technical Services (ALCTS), a Division of the American Library Association (ALA). Copied August 21, 2021 from https://www.ala.org/alcts/about/advocacy/glossary

Administrative Metadata: “Metadata used in managing and administering information resources, e.g., location or donor information. Includes rights and access information, data on the creation and preservation of the digital object.“

DCMI Glossary. Dublin Core Metadata Initiative. Copied 2021-04-05 from https://www.dublincore.org/specifications/dublin-core/usageguide/glossary/

Administrative Metadata: "Describe how the this object relates to business content. Who created it? Who owns it? When was it created? When should it be removed?"

Peter Morville and Louis Rosenfeld. (2007) Information Architecture for the World Wide Web. Sebastopol, CA : O'Reilly, c2007. Page 243

Administrative Metadata:

“n.

Data that is necessary to manage and use information resources and that is typically external to informational content of resources.

Notes: Administrative metadata often captures the context necessary to understand information resources, such as creation or acquisition of the data, rights management, and disposition.

Citations: (Puglia, Reed, and Rhodes 2004, p. 8) Administrative metadata comprises both technical and preservation metadata, and is generally used for internal management of digital resources. Administrative metadata may include information about rights and reproduction or other access requirements, selection criteria or archiving policy for digital content, audit trails or logs created by a digital asset management system, persistent identifiers, methodology or documentation of the imaging process, or information about the source materials being scanned. In general, administrative metadata is informed by the local needs of the project or institution and is defined by project-specific workflows. Administrative metadata may also encompass repository-like information, such as billing information or contractual agreements for deposit of digitized resources into a repository.“

Society of American Archvists Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology. Copied 2020-12-27 from https://dictionary.archivists.org/entry/archive.html

Archive: “The building, facility, or area that houses an archival collection (the term repository is preferred by most archivists). Also, to place documents in storage, usually to preserve them as a historical, informational, legal, or evidential record, permanently or for a finite or indefinite period of time. See also: digital archive.“

Copied December 29, 2020, from ABC CLIO at https://products.abc-clio.com/ODLIS/odlis_a.aspx

Archives: "(1) The noncurrent records of an organization or institution preserved because of their continuing value. (2) The agency responsible for selecting, preserving, and making available records determined to have permanent or continuing value. (3) The building in which an archival institution is located."

Archives and Records Management Resources, National Archives and Records Administration. Copied 2021-06-01 from https://www.archives.gov/research/alic/reference/archives-resources/terminology.html

Archive:

“n.“

“1. a physical or digital collection of historical records(Citations)“

“2. a fonds(Citations)“

“3. an individual record of continuing value(Citations)“

“4. a curated online collection of information and contextual data relating to a particular theme (Citations)“

“5. a conceptual construct of a storehouse of recorded knowledge with outsized social and political significance that generally controls meaning and discourse and serves as a simulacrum of truth and fact (Citations)“

“v.“

“to transfer records of continuing value to a repository and to preserve and manage those records (Citations)“

“to back up or to store data offline(Citations)“

“adj.““

“1.relating to archives and archival practice(Citations)“

“Notes“

“Many American and Canadian archivists deprecate the use of the word “archive”—as a noun, verb, or even an adjective, in all of their many meanings. In the case of the noun, the faux plural “archives” is preferred in North American professional discourse—although “archive” is preferred in the rest of the English-speaking world. The verb is sometimes considered a déclassé usage that undermines the serious value of archives and perverts the meaning of what archivists do. The less recognized adjectival form “archive” is often used, but the use of that term is small compared to the use of the more common term “archival.”https://dictionary.archivists.org/entry/archive.html

https://dictionary.archivists.org/entry/archive.htmlDespite this disregard for the term, the word “archive” as a noun and adjective is of relatively ancient vintage in North American professional writing about archives. The adjective appears in all of the earliest issues of The American Archivist, beginning in 1938, and the noun has been used by archivists at least since the early 1960s. “Archive” as a verb is about a quarter of a century old in professional parlance, but this archival (rather than information technology) sense of the verb appeared in Webster's New International Dictionary, second edition, as early as 1934. The meanings assigned to the word “archive” are legion, encompassing archival, information technology, and philosophical concepts.“

Society of American Archvists Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology. Copied 2020-12-27 from https://dictionary.archivists.org/entry/archive.html

Archives: “An organized collection of the noncurrent records of the activities of a business, government, organization, institution, or other corporate body, or the personal papers of one or more individuals, families, or groups, retained permanently (or for a designated or indeterminate period of time) by their originator or a successor for their permanent historical, informational, evidential, legal, administrative, or monetary value, usually in a repository managed and maintained by a trained archivist. Also refers to the office or organization responsible for appraising, selecting, preserving, and providing access to archival materials.“

“Archives can be classified in three broad categories: government archives (example: National Archives and Records Administration), in-house archives maintained by a parent institution, and collecting archives (manuscript libraries, film archives, genealogical archives, sound archives, personal archives, etc.). ProQuest provides the subscription database Archive Finder. Compare with archive. See also: archival copy, archival database, archival jurisdiction, archival paper, archival quality, archival value, artificial collection, digital archives, International Council on Archives, and Society of American Archivists.“

“The term is also used in academia to refer to a repository of electronic preprints, working papers, and similar documents, commonly called e-print archives. Used in this sense, there is no implication of archival management, which has caused some confusion, for example, around the purpose of the Open Archives Initiative (OAI).“

Copied December 29, 2020, from 3ABC CLIO at https://products.abc-clio.com/ODLIS/odlis_a.aspx

Bibliographic Control: "A term which covers a range of bibliographic activities: complete bibliographic records of all bibliographic items as published; standardization of bibliographic description; provision of physical access through consortia, networks, or other cooperative endeavors; and provision of bibliographic access through the compilation and distribution of union lists and subject bibliographies and through bibliographic service centers."

Heartsill Young, Editor. The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science. Chicago : American Library Association (1983). Page 21

Bibliographic Control: “The operation or process by which recorded information is organized or arranged and thereby made readily retrievable. The term covers a range of bibliographic activities, including complete records of bibliographic items as published, standardization of bibliographic description, and provision of physical access through consortia, networks, or other cooperative endeavors.“

Lois Mai Chan, (1981) Cataloging and classification : an introduction, New York : McGrawHill. Page 480.

Bibliographic Control: “The means and methods by which publications are listed on a systematic basis in bibliographic files. In this context, 'publications' include not only printed books and serials (i.e. journals, magazines, annuals, newspapers, etc.) but also works in other media, e.g. microforms, computer files, audio cassettes, OPTICAL DISKS. Bibliographic control covers a range of library and information disciplines. These may include the following: BIBLIOGRAPHIC DESCRIPTION, subject access by controlled vocabulary subject headings, name authority control and coding for MACHINE-READABLE CATALOGUING (MARC). A variety of systems and schemes have been developed for these disciplines.“

John Feather and Paul Sturges, editors. International Encyclopedia of Information and Library Science, second edition. London ; New York : Routledge, 2003. Page 35.

Bibliographic Control: “A term which covers a range of bibliographic activities: complete bibliographic records of all bibliographic items as published; standardization of bibliographic description; provision of physical access through consortia, networks, or other cooperative endeavors; and provision of bibliographic access through the compilation and distribution of union lists and subject bibliographies and through bibliographic service centers.“

Heartsill Young, Editor. The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science. Chicago : American Library Association (1983). Page 21

Browsability: “The ability of a retrieval system to lend itself to unsystematic or random searches.”

H A Stolk; Arthur Herbert Holloway; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD). London, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, 1974. Page r.

Browsability: “The ability of a documentation system to lend itself to unsystematic or random searches. For example, an open-access library with subject arrangement allows a reader to browse in a subject category.“

Terminology of documentation : A selection of 1,200 basic terms published in English, French, German, Russian and Spanish. Compiled by Gernot Wersig and Ulrich Neveling. Paris : The Unesco Press. 1976. p. 138

Classification: "A logical scheme for arrangement of knowledge, usually by subject. Classification schema are alpha and/or numeric; for example, Library of Congress Classification, Dewey Classification, Universal Decimal Classification."

DCMI Glossary. Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI). Copied 2021-04-05 from https://www.dublincore.org/specifications/dublin-core/usageguide/glossary/#dlo

Classification: “The systematic organization of books, serials, and other documents in all media by their subject matter. The subject divisions identified are generally assigned a coded notation to represent the subject content. Classification schemes in libraries, or BIBLIOGRAPHIC CLASSIFICATION, are used both as the basis of the SUBJECT CATALOGUE and a SUBJECT INDEX, and for the arrangement of the items on the shelves.“

John Feather and Paul Sturges, editors. International Encyclopedia of Information and Library Science, second edition. London ; New York : Routledge, 2003. Page 78.

Classification: “The systematic assignment of resources to a system of intentional categories, often institutional ones. Classification is applied categorization - the assignment of resources to a system of categories, called classes, using a predetermined set of principiles.“

Robert J. Glushko, Editor. The Discipline of Organizing. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2013. Page 484.

Collection: “(1) An artificial accumulation of materials devoted to a single theme, person, event, or type of document acquired from a variety of sources. (2) In a manuscript repository, a body of historical materials relating to an individual, family, or organization.“

Archives and Records Management Resources, National Archives and Records Administration. Copied 2021-06-01 from https://www.archives.gov/research/alic/reference/archives-resources/terminology.html

Collection: "An organized body of stored items.”

Terminology of documentation : A selection of 1,200 basic terms published in English, French, German, Russian and Spanish. Compiled by Gernot Wersig and Ulrich Neveling. Paris : The Unesco Press. 1976. p. 135

Collection Development: A term which encompasses a number of activities related to the development of the library collection, including the determination and coordination of selection policy, assessment of needs of users and potential users, collection user studies, collection evaluation, identification of collection needs, selection of materials, planning for resource sharing, collection maintenance, and weeding.

Heartsill Young, Editor. The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science. Chicago : American Library Association (1983). Page 49.

Collection Development: The process of planning a library's programme for ACQUISITIONS and disposals, focusing on the building of collections, in the context of the institution's COLLECTION MANAGEMENT policy.

John Feather and Paul Sturges, editors. International Encyclopedia of Information and Library Science, second edition. London ; New York : Routledge, 2003. Page 81.

Communication: n. About 1384 communicacioun an imparting or transmitting of something: borrowed from Old French communicacion learned borrowing from Latin commũnicãtiõnem (nominative commũnicãtiõ) from commũnicãre make common to many, share, impart (com- together + a lost adjective *moinicos carrying an obligation, from mũnia, Old Latin moenia duties); for suffix see -ATION. —communicate v. 1526, partake in common, share; probably a back formation from English communication, and borrowed from Latin commũnicãtus, past participle of commũnicãre make common, share, impart; for suffix see -ATE1. —communicable adj. Before 1398, borrowed probably through Old French communicable and directly as if from Latin *commũnicãbilis, from Latin commũnicãre; for suffix see -ABLE.

The Barnhart Concise Dictionary of Etymology / edited by Robert K. Barnhart. New York : HarperCollins Publishers, c1995. Page 143.

Controlled Vocabulary: "In subject analysis and retrieval, the use of an authorized subset of the language as indexing terms."

Lois Mai Chan. Cataloging and classification : an introduction. New York : 2nd Edition. New York : McGraw-Hill, c1994. Page 483.

Controlled Vocabulary: “Controlled vocabulary is an artificial language, while its vocabulary, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics are limited and defined (Wellisch, 1995). The same word in different controlled vocabularies might have a different meaning given the orientation of the vocabulary. Controlled vocabulary must be constructed and maintained with specific subjects area(s) in mind. Terms to be included in controlled vocabulary are selected by following the principle of either literary warrant or user warrant. Literary warrant means that terms to be included in the controlled vocabulary must be chosen from existing literature. Similarly, user warrant implies that terms to be selected for inclusion in a controlled vocabulary must have been used in the past. Thesauri, subject heading lists, and classification schemes are the three major types of controlled vocabularies.“

Heting Chu. Information representation and retrieval in the digital age. Medford, N.J. : Published for the American Society for Information Science and Technology by Information Today (ASIS&T) (2010). Page 54.

Controlled Vocabulary: "A prescribed set of consistently used and carefully defined terms."

DCMI Glossary. Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI). Copied 2021-04-05 from https://www.dublincore.org/specifications/dublin-core/usageguide/glossary/#dlo</p>

Controlled Vocabulary: “One way to encourage good names for a given resource domain or task is to establish a controlled vocabulary. A controlled vocabulary can be thought of as a fixed or closed dictionary that includes all the terms that can be used in a particular (link) domain. A controlled vocabulary shrinks the number of words used, reducing synonymy (link) and homonymy (link) and eliminating undesirable associations, leaving behind a set of words with precisely defined meanings and rules governing their use.“

Robert J. Glushko, Editor. The Discipline of Organizing. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2013. Page 486

Controlled Vocabulary: ”It is controlled in the sense that the meaning of each label is carefully considered, and ambiguous, alternate or less precise terms are excluded.”

Patrick Lambe. Organising Knowledge: Taxonomies, Knowledge and Organisational Effectiveness. 1st Edition. Oxford, Cambridge, New Delhi : Chandos Publishing, 2007. Page 6.

Controlled Vocabulary: ”A list of terms that have been enumerated explicitly. This list is controlled by and is available from a controlled vocabulary registration authority. All terms in a controlled vocabulary must have an unambiguous, non-redundant definition.”

Darin L. Stewart. Building Enterprise Taxonomies. 2nd Edition. Mokita Press, 2011. Page 207.

Crosswalk: “In the management of metadata, a human-generated chart or diagram indicating equivalencies and relationships between the data elements of two or more metadata standards, for example, between FGDC content standards for digital geospatial metadata and USMARC. Crosswalks enable search engines to operate across databases that use dissimilar record formats. Click here to see a set of examples, courtesy of the Alexandria Digital Library Project at the University of California, Santa Barbara. See also: interoperability.“

Crosswalk: "Similar to mapping, a straightforward approach to transformation is the use of crosswalks, which are equivalence tables that relate resource description elements, semantics, and wrting systems from one organizing system to those of another.”

Robert J. Glushko, editor. The Discipline of Organizing. Cambridge, MA : The MIT Press, 2013. Page 486.

Crosswalk: "(n.) The relationships between the elements of two or more data structures. A chart or diagram that indicates the correspondence between two systems. (Note: A crosswalk between MARC format and Dublin Core would indicate that a title is entered in MARC field 245 and tagged Title in Dublin Core.)”

Society of American Archivists. Glossary Terms. Copied 2021-12-28 from https://dictionary.archivists.org/entry/crosswalk.html.

Data: "In computational systems data are the coded invariances. In human discourse data are that which is stated, for instance, by informants in an empirical study."

Dr. Hanne Albrechtsen, Institute of Knowledge Sharing, Copenhagen, Denmark. Definition 1 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “The symbols or characters of a language which have been selected and combined to convey information.”

Heartsill Young, Editor. The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science. Chicago : American Library Association (1983). Page 66

Data “Datum is the representation of concepts or other entities, fixed in or on a medium in a form suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing by human beings or by automated systems [Wellisch, H.H. (1996). Abstracting, indexing, classification, thesaurus construction: A glossary. Port Aransas, TX: American Society of Indexers]”

Prof. Elsa Barber, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Definition 2 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “(pl.) (n.) (sing. datum) observations or measurements, usually quantified and obtained in the course of research. For example, a researcher may be interested in collecting data on health-related behaviors such as frequency and amount of exercise, number of calories consumed per day, number of cigarettes smoked per day, number of alcoholic drinks per day, and so forth.“

APA Dictionary of Psychology. Copied 2022-01-07 from https://dictionary.apa.org/data

Data:: “Datum (n., pl. data) information or fact. 1646, in plural data, borrowing of Latin datum (thing) given, past participle (neuter) of dare give; see DATE1 time. ”

The Barnhart Concise Dictionary of Etymology / edited by Robert K. Barnhart. New York : HarperCollins Publishers, c1995. Page 419.

Data: “Data is a symbol set that is quantified and/or qualified.”

Prof. Aldo de Albuquerque Barreto, Brazilian Institute for Information in Science and Technology, Brazil. Definition 3 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.]

Data: “Data are sensory stimuli that we perceive through our senses.”

Prof. Shifra Baruchson–Arbib, Bar Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel. Definition 4 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.]

Data: “Datum is every thing or every unit that could increase the human knowledge or could allow to enlarge our field of scientific, theoretical or practical knowledge, and that can be recorded, on whichever support, or orally handed. Data can arouse information and knowledge in our mind."

Prof. Maria Teresa Biagetti, University of Rome 1, Italy. Definition 5 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data are the basic individual items of numeric or other information, garnered through observation; but in themselves, without context, they are devoid of information.”

Dr. Quentin L. Burrell, Isle of Man International Business School, Isle of Man. Definition 7 on p. 481 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-49

Data (Atomic Data): “Lowest level of detail (such as number of goods sold) from which the aggregate data (such as a daily sales summary) is computed.“

Business Dictionary. Copied September 1, 2020 from http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/atomic-data.html

Data: “A representation of facts, concepts, or instructions in a formalized manner suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing by humans or by automated means.“

California Department of General Services (DGS), State Administrative Manual. DEFINITIONS - 4819.2. Copied 2021-06-05 from https://www.dgs.ca.gov/Resources/SAM/TOC/4800/4819-2

Data: “According to Stonier (1993, 1997), data is a series of disconnected facts and observations. These may be converted to information by analyzing, cross-referring, selecting, sorting, summarizing, or in some way organizing the data. Patterns of information, in turn, can be worked up into a coherent body of knowledge. Knowledge consists of an organized body of information, such information patterns forming the basis of the kinds of insights and judgments which we call wisdom. The above conceptualization may be made concrete by a physical analogy (Stonier, 1993): consider spinning fleece into yarn, and then weaving yarn into cloth. The fleece can be considered analogous to data, the yarn to information and the cloth to knowledge. Cutting and sewing the cloth into a useful garment is analogous to creating insight and judgment (wisdom). This analogy emphasizes two important points: (1) going from fleece to garment involves, at each step, an input of work, and (2) at each step, this input of work leads to an increase in organization, thereby producing a hierarchy of organization.“

Prof. Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic, Mälardalen University, Västerås/Eskilstuna, Sweden). Definition 12 on p. 482 in Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “The corpus of information....consists of two types of information - non-data and data. Non-data is nonnumeric.... Data, on the other hand, is numeric, highly formatted and results from analysis.”

Dolan, 1969, p. 41.” “The Role of the Information Scientist,” in International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, vol. 1, (1969), pp. 39-50. Cited in The Study of Information, Interdisciplinary Messages, p. 646. “There are writers who insist that data consist entirely of numbers. (FOOTNOTE 6: “The corpus of information....consists of two types of information - non-data and data. Non-data is non-numeric....Data, on the other hand, is numeric, highly formatted and results from analysis.” Dolan, 1969, p. 41.)”

Data: “Datum is a unique piece of content related to an entity.”

Prof. Henri Dou, University of Aix-Marseille III, France. Definition 13 on p. 482 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: "Data are a set of symbols representing a perception of raw facts (i.e., following Debons, Horne, and Cronenweth (1988), events from which inferences or conclusions can be drawn).“

Prof. Nicolae Dragulanescu, Polytechnics University of Bucharest, Romania. Definition 14 on page 482 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493. Debons, A., Horne, E., and Cronenweth, S. (1988). Information science: An integrated view. New York: G.K. Hall.

Data: "Here, data typically means the “raw” material obtained from observation (broadly understood, but not necessarily, as “sense impressions,” which is a key notion of empiricist philosophy). Such data is typically quantitative, presented in numbers and figures.“

Prof. Hamid Ekbia, University of Redlands, Redlands, CA. Definition 15 on page 482 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data are a string of symbols.”

Prof. Raya Fidel, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Definition 17 on page 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data (Atomic Data): “Atomic data are data elements that represent the lowest level of detail. For example, in a daily sales report, the individual items sold would be atomic data, while rollups such as invoice and summary totals from invoices are aggregate data. The word atomic data is based on the atom where in chemistry and physics is the smallest particle that can characterized a chemical element. In natural philosophy, the atom is the indestructible building blocks of the universe. In the same light, atomic data is the smallest data that has details that come up with a complete meaning. In the field of computer science specifically in computer programming, atomic data refers to a data type whether it is an action or an object that can no longer be broken down into smaller unites. In other words, the data type is no longer divisible, changeable and always whole.”

In the field of computer science specifically in computer programming, atomic data refers to a data type whether it is an action or an object that can no longer be broken down into smaller unites. In other words, the data type is no longer divisible, changeable and always whole.”

GeekInterview.com. copied 2021-05-31 from http://www.learn.geekinterview.com/data-warehouse/data-types/what-is-atomic-data.html

Data: “Data elements that represent the lowest level of detail. For example, in a daily sales report, the individual items that are sold are atomic data, whereas roll ups such as invoice and summary totals from invoices are aggregate data.“

Genesys. Copied September 1, 2020 from https://docs.genesys.com/Glossary:Atomic_Data#:~:text=Data%20elements%20that%20represent%20the,from%20invoices%20are%20aggregate%20data.

Data: “Data are representations of facts about the world.”

Dr. H.M. Gladney, HMG Consulting, McDonald, PA. Definition 19 on page 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data is one or more kinds of energy waves or particles (light, heat, sound, force, electromagnetic) selected by a conscious organism or intelligent agent on the basis of a pre- existing frame or inferential mechanism in the organism or agent.”

Prof. Glynn Harmon, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX) Definition 20 on page 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data are facts and statistics that can be quantified, measured, counted, and stored.”

Dr. Donald Hawkins, Information Today, Medford, NJ. Definition 21 on p. 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “…that which is recorded as symbols from which other symbols may be produced”

Hayes RM. Information science in librarianship. Libri, v. 19, no. 3, 1969: 216-36.

Data: “Data are dynamic objects of cultural experience having the aspect of being meaning-neutral and a dual nature of description and instruction.”

Mr. Ken Herold, Hamilton College, Clinton, NY. Definition 23 on page 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data are the raw observations about the world collected by scientists and others, with a minimum of contextual interpretation.”

Prof. William Hersh, Oregon Health Science University, Portland, OR. Definition 24 on page 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493

Data: "The factual invariances.”

Peter Checkland and Sue Holwell. Information, systems, and information systems : making sense of the field. Chichester ; New York : Wiley, c1998. Page 219

Data: “A general term for quantitative or numerically encoded information, particularly used for information stored in a database. The word is, however, frequently used in a casual way with a sense not especially different from ‘information ‘, as, for instance, in a phrase like ‘biological data ‘.“

International Encyclopedia of Information and Library Science, p. 120.

Data: (pl.): “The representation of information in a formalised manner suitable for communication, interpretation and processing, generally by a computer system. Note: the term ‘raw data’ refers to unprocessed information.“

Glossary by the International Records Management Trust, at http:// www.irmt.org/documents/educ_training/educ_resource/IRMT_ed_rec_glossary.doc

Data: "re-interpretable representation of information in a formalized manner suitable for communication, interpretation or processing Note 1 to entry: Data can be processed by human or automatic means"

Note 1 to entry: Data can be processed by humans or by automatic means.

Note 2 to entry: data: term and definition standardized by ISO/IEC [ISO/IEC 2382-1:1993].

Note 3 to entry: 01.01.02 (2382)

ISO/IEC 2382-1:1993, 01.01.02. Copied 2021-05-29 from https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso-iec:11179:-4:ed-2:v1:en

Data (Atomic Data): “Data are atomic facts, basic elements of “truth,” without interpretation or greater context. It is related to things we sense.”

Prof. Donald Kraft, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA. Definition 25 on p. 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Datum (in our sector mainly electronic) is the conventional representation, after coding (using ASCII, for example), of information.”

Prof. Yves François Le Coadic, National Technical University, Lyon, France. Definition 27 on page 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “(/ˈdeɪtə/ DAY-tə, /ˈdætə/ DA-tə, or /ˈdɑːtə/ DAH-tə) is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables. An example of qualitative data is an anthropologist's handwritten note about his or her interviews with indigenous people. Pieces of data are individual pieces of information. While the concept of data is commonly associated with scientific research, data is collected by a huge range of organizations and institutions, including businesses (e.g., sales data, revenue, profits, stock price), governments (e.g., crime rates, unemployment rates, literacy rates) and non-governmental organizations (e.g., censuses of the number of homeless people by non-profit organizations).“

Glossary of Library & Information Science. Librarianship Studies & Information. Technology.Copied 2021-08-23 from https://www.librarianshipstudies.com/2015/04/glossary-of-library-information-science.html

Data: “Data are commonly seen as simple, isolated facts, though products of intellectual activity in their rough shape.”

Dr. Jo Link-Pezet, Urfist, and University of Social Sciences, France. Definition 28 on page 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493

Data: “reinterpretable representation of information (3.1.1.16) in a formalized manner suitable for communication (3.1.8.04), interpretation, or processing “

ISO. Copied 2022-01-03 from https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:5127:ed-2:v1:en.

Data:“Data are formalized parts (i.e., digitalized contents) of sociocultural information potentionally proccessable by technical facilities which disregard the cognitive process and that is why it is necessary to provide them with meanings from outside (i.e., they are objective).”

Mr. Michal Lorenz, Masaryk University in Brno, Czech Republic). Definition 29 on page 484-5 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “"Data", as the plural form of the Latin word "datum", means "things that have been given." It is, therefore, an apt term for the sort of information-as-thing that has been processed in some way for use. Commonly "data" denotes whatever records are stored in a computer. (See Machlup (1983, p. 646-649) for a discussion of the use and mis-use of the term "data".)“

Information as Thing, M. Buckland, 1991

Data: “Data are perceptible or perceived — if and when the signal can be interpreted by the ‘user’—attributes of physical, biological, social or conceptual entities.”

Prof. Michel J. Menou, Knowledge and ICT management consultant, France. Definition 30 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data are sets of characters, symbols, numbers, and audio/visual bits that are represented and/or encountered in raw forms. Inherently, knowledge is needed to decipher data and turn them into information.”

Prof. Haidar Moukdad, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Definition 31 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58,479-493.

Data: “A subset of information in an electronic format that allows it to be retrieved or transmitted.“

Committee on National Security Systems Instruction Number 4009, “National Information Assurance Glossary,” April 26, 2010

Data:“Data are raw material of information, typically numeric.”

Prof. Charles Oppenheim, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK. Definition 32 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data are sets of symbols representing captured evidence of activities, transactions, and events.“

Miranda Lee Pao, (1989) Concepts of Information Retreival, Englewood, Colorado. Libraries Unlimited, Inc. Page 10.

Data: “Datum is an object or crude fact perceived by the subject, non-constructed nor elaborated in the consciousness, without passing through neither analysis processes nor evaluation for its transfer as information.

Prof. Lena Vania Pinheiro, Brazilian Institute for Information in Science and Technology, Brazil. Definition 33 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data are primitive symbolic entities, whose meaning depend on it integration within a context that allow their understanding by an interpreter.” [(Belkin, N.J., and Robertson, S.E. (1976). Information science and the phenomenon of information. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 27, 197–204] [Blair, D.C. (2002). Knowledge management: Hype, hope or help? Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 53(12), 1019–1028)]

Prof. Maria Pinto, University of Granada, Spain. Definition 34 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data, information, knowledge, message. I am unable to understand why data, information, knowledge and message are placed on the same level of analysis. I would suggest considering message as the “vehicle” carrying either data or information (which can be taken as synonymous).”

Prof. Roberto Poli, University of Trento, Italy. Definition 35 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493]

Data: “Data are a representation of facts or ideas in a formalized manner, and hence capable of being communicated or manipulated by some process. So: data is related to facts and machines. (Holmes, N. (2001). The great term robbery. Computer, 34(5), 94–96.).”

Prof. Ronald Rousseau, KHBO, and University of Antwerp. Definition 36 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493

Data: “Datum is a quantifiable fact that can be repeatedly measured.”

Mr. Scott Seaman, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO. [Definition 37 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data (Atomic Data): “Atomic data is information that can't be broken down into smaller parts. The term is often applied to source data that hasn't been calculated but instead represents a concrete business reality.”

Simplicable at https://simplicable.com/new/atomic-data]

Data: “Data are raw evidence, unprocessed, eligible to be processed to produce knowledge.”

Prof. Richard Smiraglia, Long Island University, Brookville, NY. Definition 38 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493

Data: “A general term used to denote facts, symbols or other information. It connotes basic elements of information which can be processed or produced by a computer. Data is sometimes considered to be expressible only in numerical form, but information is not so limited.“

H A Stolk; Arthur Herbert Holloway; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD). London, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, 1974. Page 9.

Data: “Data are discrete items of information that I would call facts on some subject or other, not necessarily set within a fully worked out framework.”

Prof. Paul Sturges, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK) [Definition 39 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493

Data (Atomic Data): “In a data warehouse, atomic data is the lowest level of detail. Atomic data provides the base data for all data transformations.“

WhatIs. Copied September 1, 2020 from https://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/atomic-data

Data (Raw Data): “Raw data refers to any data object that hasn’t undergone thorough processing, either manually or through automated computer software. Raw data may be gathered from various processes and IT resources. Raw data is also known as source data, primary data or atomic data. Raw data is primarily unstructured or unformatted repository data. It can be in the form of files, visual images, database records or any other digital data. Raw data is extracted, analyzed, processed and used by humans or purpose-built software applications to draw conclusions, make projections or extract meaningful information. The processed data takes the form of information. Business intelligence, data mining and some artificial intelligence may process raw data to produce meaningful results.”

Techopedia at https://www.techopedia.com/definition/1230/rawdata

Data: “Sometimes a distinction is made between the mechanistic representation of the symbols, which is called data,’ and the meaning attributed to the symbols, which is called ‘information’.

Teichroew, 1978, p. 658.” Footnote 11 on page 648 of The Study of Information, Interdisciplinary Messages, p. 647. Teichroew, D., “Information Systems,” in Encyclopedia of Computer Science (New York: Petrocelli/ Charter, 1978), pp. 657-660.

Data: “Data are facts that are the result of observation or measurement.“

Landry, B.C., Mathis, B.A., Meara, N.M., Rush, J.E., and Young, C.E. (1970). Definition of some basic terms in computer and information science, Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 24(5), 328–342.” Prof. Carol Tenopir, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN. Definition 40 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data are unprocessed, unrelated raw facts or artifacts.”

Joanne Twining, Intertwining.org, a virtual information consultancy, USA. Definition 41 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Representations of facts, concepts, or instructions in a manner suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing by humans or by automated means.“

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Glossary of Computer System Software Development Terminology (8/95). Copied 2021-06-05 from https://www.fda.gov/inspections-compliance-enforcement-and-criminal-investigations/inspection-guides/glossary-computer-system-software-development-terminology-895

Data: “A representation by signs of facts, concepts or instructions in a formalized manner suitable for ‘communication’ interpretation or processing by humans or by automatic means.”

Wersig, G., Neveling U. Terminology of documentation : a selection of 1200 basic terms published in English, French, German, Russian, and Spanish. Paris : The Unesco Press; 1976. Page 72.

Data: “Data are representations of facts and raw material of information.”

Prof. Anna da Soledade Vieira, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Definition 42 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “ Raw data refers to any data object that hasn’t undergone thorough processing, either manually or through automated computer software. Raw data may be gathered from various processes and IT resources. Raw data is also known as source data, primary data or atomic data. “

Techopedia. Copied September 1, 2020 from https://www.techopedia.com/definition/1230/raw-data.

Data: “Raw data is unprocessed computer data. This information may be stored in a file, or may just be a collection of numbers and characters stored on somewhere in the computer's hard disk. For example, information entered into a database is often called raw data. The data can either be entered by a user or generated by the computer itself. Because it has not been processed by the computer in any way, it is considered to be “raw data.“ To continue the culinary analogy, data that has been processed by the computer is sometimes referred to as “cooked data.“

TechTerms. Copied September 1, 2020 from https://techterms.com/definition/rawdata

Data: “A representation of facts, concepts, or instructions in a formalized manner suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing by human or automatic means.“

US Marine Corps Information Requirements (Reports) Management Program Definitions. Copied 2021-06-05 from https://www.marines.mil/Portals/1/MCO%205214.2F.pdf

Data (Atomic Data): “In a data warehouse, atomic data is the lowest level of detail. Atomic data provides the base data for all data transformations.“

WhatIs.com. Copied 2021-05-31 from https://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/atomic-data

Data: “Data are alphabetic or numeric signs, which without context do not have any meaning.”

Prof. Irene Wormell, Swedish School of Library and Information Science in Boräs, Sweden. Definition 43 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data are artifacts that reflect a phenomenon in natural or social world in the form of figures, facts, plots, etc.”

Prof. Yishan Wu, Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (ISTIC), Beijing, China. Definition 44 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “The word “data” is commonly used to refer to records or recordings encoded for use in computer, but is more widely used to refer to statistical observations and other recordings or collections of evidence.”

Definition 6 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data is the plural of datum, although the singular form is rarely used. Purists who remember their first-year Latin may insist on using a plural verb with data, but they forget that English grammar permits collective nouns. Depending on the context, data can be used in the plural or as a singular word meaning a set or collection of facts. Etymologically, data, as noted, is the plural of datum, a noun formed from the past participle of the Latin verb dare–to give. Originally, data were things that were given (accepted as “true”). A data element, d, is the smallest thing which can be recognized as a discrete element of that class of things named by a specific attribute, for a given unit of measure with a given precision of measurement (Rush and Davis, 2007; Landry and Rush, 1970; Yovits and Ernst, 1970).”

Page 481 in Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Raw data (sometimes called source data or atomic data) is data that has not been processed for use. [In the spirit of Tom Stonier’s definition—Data: a series of disconnected facts and observations] Here “unprocessed” might be understood in a sense that no specific effort has been made to interpret or understand the data. They are the result of some observation or measurement process, which has been recorded as “facts of the world.” The word data is the plural of Latin datum, “something given”, which one also could call “atomic facts. Information is the end product of data processing. Knowledge is the end product of information processing. In much the same way as raw data are used as input, and processed in order to get information, the information itself is used as input for a process that results in knowledge.”

Page 482 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data can be defined as a class of information objects, made up of units of binary code that are intended to be stored, processed, and transmitted by digital computers. As such, data consists of information in a narrow sense—i.e., as inscribed in binary code, units of data are not likely to be immediately meaningful to a human being. But units of data, as “informational building blocks,” when collected and processed properly, can form information in the broader sense (see below), i.e., that is more likely to be meaningful to a human being (as sense-making beings).”

Cited on p. 482 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: "It depends on your framework. If you are a Kantian, it is the foundation for the a priori categories of the understanding. If you are a computer programmer it is preprocessed information (data collected according to some algorithm for some purpose) or post-processed information (e.g., tables of such information). In this latter case data cannot be defined apart from information, because it is dependent on it. If you are a biologist, it might be stimuli, but these scientific approaches are built on a faulty understanding of perception (e.g., perception is sensations (i.e., stimuli) glued together—which is false)."

Cited on p. 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data are observations and measurements you make on objects (artifacts, sites, seeds, bones) and on their contexts. Data are theory-laden. Regarding the theory of knowledge organization we may say that knowledge is not organized by elements called data combined or processed according to some algorithmic procedure. What data are is domain specific and theory-laden. At the most general level what is seen as data is depending of the epistemological view that one subscribes to.”

Cited on p. 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data: “Data are primitive symbolic entities, whose meaning depend on it integration within a context that allow their understanding by an interpreter. Information is the intentional composition of data by a sender with the goal of modifying the knowledge state of an interpreter or receiver. Knowledge is the intelligent information processing by the receiver and it consequent incorporation to the individual or social memory [(Belkin, N.J., and Robertson, S.E. (1976). Information science and the phenomenon of information. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 27, 197–204] [Blair, D.C. (2002). Knowledge management: Hype, hope or help? Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 53(12), 1019–1028)]”

Prof. Maria Pinto, University of Granada, Spain. Definition 34 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Data Element: “1. A basic unit of information built on standard structures having a unique meaning and distinct units or values. 2. In electronic recordkeeping, a combination of characters or bytes referring to one separate item of information, such as name, address, or age.“

JP 1-0 - DoD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, Department of Defense, at https://www.jcs.mil/Portals/36/Documents/Doctrine/pubs/dictionary.pdf

Datum: "sing. or pl. n. (datum, sing.) ~ Facts, ideas, or discrete pieces of information, especially when in the form originally collected and unanalyzed. Notes: Traditionally a plural noun, data - rather than datum - is now commonly used with a singular verb. Data often is used to refer to information in its most atomized form, as numbers or facts that have not been synthesized or interpreted, such as the initial readings from a gauge or obtained from a survey. In this sense, data is used as the basis of information, the latter distinguished by recognized patterns or meaning in the data. The phrase 'raw data' may be used to distinguish the original data from subsequently 'refined data'. Data is independent of any medium in which it is captured. Data is intangible until it has been recorded in some medium. Even when captured in a document or other form, the content is distinct from the carrier.“

Dictionary of Archives Terminology. Society of American Archivists. Copied 2021-04-05 from https://www2.archivists.org/glossary/terms/d/data

Demand Study: "The degree of correspondence of the outputs of an information or documentation system and the needs of the user expressed by the user.”

Terminology of documentation : A selection of 1,200 basic terms published in English, French, German, Russian and Spanish. Compiled by Gernot Wersig and Ulrich Neveling. Paris : The Unesco Press. 1976. p. 171

Descriptive Metadata: See also "Administrative Metadata" and "Structural Metadata."

Descriptive Metadata: "Metadata that supports the discovery of an object."

DCMI Glossary. Dublin Core Metadata Initiative. Copied 2021-04-05 from https://www.dublincore.org/specifications/dublin-core/usageguide/glossary/#dlo

Descriptive Metadata: "Think of all the different ways you might describe this object. How about topic, audience, and format? There should be at least a dozen different ways to describe many of the objects you study. Now's the time to get them all on the table."

Peter Morville and Louis Rosenfeld. (2007) Information Architecture for the World Wide Web. Sebastopol, CA : O'Reilly, c2007. Page 243

Descriptive Metadata: “n. Information that refers to the intellectual content of material and aids discovery of such materials. Notes Descriptive metadata allows users to locate, distinguish, and select materials on the basis of the material's subjects or 'aboutness.' It is distinguished from information about the form of the material, or its administration. Citations Puglia, Reed, and Rhodes 2004, p. 7Descriptive metadata refers to information that supports discovery and identification of a resource (the who, what, when and where of a resource). It describes the content of the resource, associates various access points, and describes how the resource is related to other resources intellectually or within a hierarchy. In addition to bibliographic information, it may also describe physical attributes of the resource such as media type, dimension, and condition.“

Society of American Archvists Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology. Copied 2020-12-27 from https://dictionary.archivists.org/entry/descriptive-metadata.html

Digital Library: "A collection of digital objects, including text, video, and audio, along with methods for access and retrieval, and for selection, organizaation and maintenance of the collection."

David Bainbridge, John Thomson and Ian H. Witten. Assembling and Enriching Digital Library Collections. Downloaded 2021-08-30 from https://www.cs.waikato.ac.nz/~ihw/papers/03-DB-JT-IHW-Assembling.pdf

Digital Library: "Digital libraries are organizations that provide the resources, including the specialized staff, to select, structure, offer intellectual access to, interpret, distribute, preserve the integrity of, and ensure the persistence over time of collections of digital works so that they are readily and economically available for use by a defined community or set of communities."

Digital Library Federation (DLF). http://www.diglib.org/

Metadata Standards and Applications Trainee Manual, Cataloging for the 21st Century -- Course 2. For The Library of Congress And the Association for Library Collections and Technical Services. August 2008. Copied 2021-09-01 from https://www.loc.gov/catworkshop/courses/metadatastandards/pdf/MSTraineeManual.pdf

Digital Library: “■ a library in which collections are stored in digital formats and accessed by computers. The digital content may be stored locally, or accessed remotely via computer networks. ■ a type of information retrieval system.“

Metadata Standards and Applications Trainee Manual, Cataloging for the 21st Century -- Course 2. For The Library of Congress And the Association for Library Collections and Technical Services. August 2008. Copied 2021-09-01 from https://www.loc.gov/catworkshop/courses/metadatastandards/pdf/MSTraineeManual.pdf

Disambiguation: "action of determining which language construct, of several with the same sequence of lexical tokens, is referred to by a particular occurrence within a program."

Note 1 to entry: disambiguation: term and definition standardized by ISO/IEC [ISO/IEC 2382-15:1999].

Note 2 to entry: 15.01.09 (2382)

SOURCE: ISO-IEC-2382-15 * 1999 * * * . Copied 2021-05-29from https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso-iec:11179:-4:ed-2:v1:en

Document: “Recorded information regardless of form or medium with three basic elements: base, impression, and message.“

Archives and Records Management Resources, National Archives and Records Administration. Copied 2021-06-01 from https://www.archives.gov/research/alic/reference/archives-resources/terminology.html

Document: “A record in any form from which information may be derived, e.g. a page containing data, a graphic representation, a tape recording or a book.“

H A Stolk; Arthur Herbert Holloway; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD). London, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, 1974. Page 11.

Document: “A unit consisting of a data medium, the data recorded on it, and the meaning assigned to the data.“

Wersig, G., Neveling U. Terminology of documentation : a selection of 1200 basic terms published in English, French, German, Russian, and Spanish. Paris : The Unesco Press; 1976. Page 89.

Document-Like Object (DLO): "Originally defined as an entity that resembles a document from the standpoint that it is substantially text-based and shares other properties of a document; e.g., electronic mail messages or spreadsheets. The definition was expanded at the 3rd DC workshop to refer to any discrete information resource that are characterized by being fixed (i.e., having identical content for each user). Examples include text, images, movies, and performances."

DCMI Glossary. Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI). Copied 2021-04-05 from https://www.dublincore.org/specifications/dublin-core/usageguide/glossary/#dlo.

Enterprise Taxonomy: SEE ALSO Taxonomy

Enterprise Taxonomy: “Yes, the more generic “business taxonomy” and “enterprise taxonomy” are terms often used interchangeably. However, I prefer it when the term “enterprise taxonomy” is used to mean specifically a taxonomy (or set of inter-related taxonomies) that is intended for use enterprise-wide. This is an important designation, because within an enterprise, taxonomies are often siloed. Integrating them and designing a unified taxonomy that cuts across all departments to support the broadest sharing of content across the enterprise is an important goal of an "enterprise taxonomy."

Heather Hedden. The Accidental Taxonomist. Medford, New Jersey : Information Today, Inc., [2016] Page 384.

Enterprise Taxonomy: "A custom-developed taxonomy used within a large organization (an enterprise) as a common knowledge organization system for the entire organization, often implemented in an intranet or an enterprise content managemetn system."

Heather Hedden. The Accidental Taxonomist. "Business Taxonomies" February 26, 2012. Copied 2021-03-16 from http://accidental-taxonomist.blogspot.com/2012/02/business-taxonomies.html

Enterprise Taxonomy: Enterprise taxonomy is typically defined as a classification system that spans the enterprise, including the full range of asset types, the business groups within the organization, and the systems and tools that support content management and presentation.

Strategic Content Services, "The Case for EnterpriseTaxonomy" Copied 2021-03-16 from http://strategiccontent.com/enterprise-taxonomy#:~:text=Enterprise%20taxonomy%20is%20typically%20defined,support%20content%20management%20and%20presentation.

Finding Aid: “A description from any source that provides information about the contents and nature of documentary materials.“

Archives and Records Management Resources, National Archives and Records Administration. Copied 2021-06-01 from https://www.archives.gov/research/alic/reference/archives-resources/terminology.html

Heading: “A name, word, or phrase placed at the head of a catalogue entry to provide an access point. See also Access point.“

American Library Association. (2004) Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, Second Edition, 2002 Revision, 2004 Update. Chicago

Identifier: “The Dublin Core™ element that is an unambiguous reference to the resource within a given context. Recommended best practice is to identify the resource by means of a string or number conforming to a formal identification system.“

DCMI Glossary. Dublin Core Metadata Initiative. Copied 2021-04-05 from https://www.dublincore.org/specifications/dublin-core/usageguide/glossary/

Index: “1. A systematic guide to the contents of a file, document, or group of documents, consisting of an ordered arrangement of terms or other symbols representing the contents and references, code numbers, etc., for accessing the contents. [ALA page 116]“

Heartsill Young, Editor. The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science. Chicago : American Library Association (1983). Page 116

Index: “An organized grouping of terms intended to facilitate access to a document or collection of documents in any medium or format. It is normally alphabetical. The most familiar form is the index to a book or series of books, indicating at what place or places topics, places or persons are mentioned by page number or some other indicator of location. The term is also used to describe a finding aid to the position of material in a library collection, more or less synonymously with catalogue (see CATALOGUES). Although the principles of analysis used are identical, however, an index entry merely locates a subject, whilst a catalogue entry also includes descriptive specification of a document concerned with the subject.“

John Feather and Paul Sturges, editors. International Encyclopedia of Information and Library Science, second edition. London ; New York : Routledge, 2003. Page 236.

Index: “An index is a description resource that contains information about the locations and frequencies of terms in a document collection to enable it to be searched efficiently.“

Robert J. Glushko, editor. The Discipline of Organizing. Cambridge, MA : The MIT Press, 2013. Page 494.

Index: “An index is a systematic guide to items contained in a collection or concepts derived from a collection. These items or concepts are represented by index terms in a known or searchable order. Therefore, the subject content of a collection may be revealed upon a closer examination of its index.“

Miranda Lee Pao, (1989) Concepts of InformationRetreival, Englewood, Colorado. Libraries Unlimited, Inc. Page 10.

Index: “An ordered reference list of the contents of a file of documents or of a single document, together with keys or reference notations for identification or location of those contents.“

H A Stolk; Arthur Herbert Holloway; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD). London, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, 1974. Page 15.

Informatics: “Informatics is the science of how to use data, information and knowledge to improve human health and the delivery of health care services.“

American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA). Copied 2021-04-22 from https://www.amia.org/fact-sheets/what-informatics

Informatics: “Informatics is the science of information. It studies the represention, processing and communicaton of information in natural and artificial systems. Since computers, individuals and organizations all process information, informatics has computational, cognitive and social aspects. Used as a compound, in conjunction with the name of a discipline, as in medical informatics, bioinformatics, etc., it denotes the specialization of informatics to the management and processing of data, information, and knowledge in the named discipline.“

John Feather and Paul Sturges, editors. International Encyclopedia of Information and Library Science, second edition. London ; New York : Routledge, 2003. Page 3e7.

Informatics: “Informatics harnesses the power and possibility of digital technology to transform data and information into knowledge that people use every day. This strong focus on the human use of computing helps people to interact with technology in the best and most efficient way possible.“

The University of Edinburgh. Copied 2021-04-22 from https://www.ed.ac.uk/files/atoms/files/what20is20informatics.pdf

Informatics: “Informatics studies the representation, processing, and communication of information in natural and engineered systems. It has computational, cognitive and social aspects. The central notion is the transformation of information - whether by computation or communication, whether by organisms or artifacts.“

Indiana University, School of Informatics and Computing. Copied 2021-04-22 from https://soic.iupui.edu/what-is-informatics/

Informatics: “The term “informatics” broadly describes the study, design, and development of information technology for the good of people, organizations, and society.“

The University of Washington. Copied 2021-04-22 from https://ischool.uw.edu/programs/informatics/what-is-informatics

Information: "Information is related to meaning or human intention. In computational systems information is the contents of databases, the web, etc. In human discourse systems information is the meaning of statements as they are intended by the speaker/writer and understood/misunderstood by the listener/reader."

Dr. Hanne Albrechtsen, Institute of Knowledge Sharing, Copenhagen, Denmark. Definition 1 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “All ideas, facts, and imaginative works of the mind which have been communicated, recorded, published and/or distributed formerly or informally in any format.”

Heartsill Young, Editor. The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science. Chicago : American Library Association (1983). Page 117

Information: “(n.) 1. knowledge about facts or ideas gained through investigation, experience, or practice. 2. in information theory, a message that reduces uncertainty; that is, information tells us something we do not already know. The bit is the common unit of information in information theory.“

APA Dictionary of Psychology. Copied 2022-01-07 from https://dictionary.apa.org/information

Information: “Information is (1) a message used by a sender to represent one or more concepts within a communication process, intended to increase knowledge in recipients. (2) A message recorded in the text of a document.”

Prof. Elsa Barber, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Definition 2 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is a set of significant signs that has the ability to create knowledge . . . The essence of the information phenomenon has been characterized as the occurrence of a communication process that takes place between the sender and the recipient of the message. Thus, the various concepts of information tend to concentrate on the origin and the end point of this communication process."

Prof. Aldo de Albuquerque Barreto, Brazilian Institute for Information in Science and Technology, Brazil. Definition 3 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is data that has been processed into a form that is meaningful to the recipient (Davis and Olson, 1985). (Davis, G.B., and Olson, M.H. (1985). Management information systems. New York: McGraw Hill).”

Prof. Shifra Baruchson–Arbib, Bar Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel. Definition 4 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “In fact, what we mean by information - the elementary unit of information - is a difference which makes a difference, and is able to make a difference because the neural pathways along which it travels and is continuously transformed are themselves provided with energy.”

Steps to an Ecology of Mind. by Gregory Bateson, p. 459.

Information: “From a semiotic viewpoint, information, or more strictly any communication of information, can be seen to have four distinct aspects: empiric, dealing with technical and physical aspects; syntactic, dealing with grammar and language; semantic, dealing with meaning; and pragmatic, dealing with context, use and consequence (see, for example, Libenau and Backhouse [1]).”

Bawden, David. The Shifting Terminologies of Information. Aslib Proceedings, Vol 53, Iss. 3, (Mar 2001): 93.

Information “Information is the change determined in the cognitive heritage of an individual. Information always develops inside of a cognitive system, or a knowing subject. Signs that constitute the words by which a document or a book has made are not information. Information starts when signs are in connection with an interpreter (Morris, C.W. (1938). Foundations of the theory of signs. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.)."

Prof. Maria Teresa Biagetti, University of Rome 1, Italy. Definition 5 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information “Information is that which is conveyed, and possibly amenable to analysis and interpretation, through data and the context in which the data are assembled.”

Dr. Quentin L. Burrell, Isle of Man International Business School, Isle of Man. Definition 7 on p. 481 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is data that has been processed into a form that is meaningful to the recipient.”

Davis, G.B., and Olson, M.H. (1985). Management information systems. New York: McGraw Hill. Cited on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information Data “may be converted to information by analyzing, cross-referring, selecting, sorting, summarizing, or in some way organizing the data.”

Prof. Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic, Mälardalen University, Västerås/ Eskilstuna, Sweden. Definition 12 on p. 482 in Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493

Information “Information is the sum of the data related to an entity.”

Prof. Henri Dou, University of Aix-Marseille III, France. Definition 13 on p. 482 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493

Information: “Information is organized data (answering the following basic questions: What? Who? When? Where?).”

Prof. Nicolae Dragulanescu, Polytechnics University of Bucharest, Romania. Cited on page 482 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is data that is communicated, has meaning, has an effect, has a goal.”

Prof. Raya Fidel, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Definition 17 on p. 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493

Information: “The meaning of information is given by the processes that interpret it.”

Edward Fredkin. “Informatics and Information Processing versus Mathematics and Physics.” Presentation at the Institute for Creative Technologies, Marina Del Ray, May 25, 2007.

Information: “Information is data organized according to an ontology that defines the relationships between some set of topics. Information can be communicated.”

Dr. H.M. Gladney, HMG Consulting, McDonald, PA. Definition 19 on page 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Informtion: “Information is an organism’s or an agent’s active or latent inferential frame that guides the selection of data for its own further development or construction.”

Prof. Glynn Harmon, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX. Definition 20 on page 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is data that has been categorized, counted, and thus given meaning, relevance, or purpose.”

Dr. Donald Hawkins, Information Today, Medford, NJ. Definition 21 on page 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is dynamic objects of cultural experience having the aspect of being belief-neutral and a dual nature of content and medium.”

Mr. Ken Herold, Hamilton College, Clinton, NY. Definition 23 on page 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is the aggregation of data to make coherent observations about the world.”

Prof. William Hersh, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR. Definition 24 on page 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493

Information: “data (3.1.1.15) that are processed, organized and correlated to produce meaning (3.1.8.03). [SOURCE:ISO 22320:2011, definition 3.9] (Note 1 to entry: Information concerns facts, concepts, objects, events, ideas, processes, etc. See also ISO 2382-16:1993, definition 16.01.03.)“

ISO. Copied 2022-01-03 from https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:5127:ed-2:v1:en.

Information: “Collection of structured data. In its broad meaning it includes knowledge as well as simple meaningful data.“

Nikola K. Kasabov, Foundations of Neural Networks, Fuzzy Systems, and Knowledge Engineering. Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England. A Bradford Book. The MIT Press Page 543

Information: “Information is a set of facts with processing capability added, such as context, relationships to other facts about the same or related objects, implying an increased usefulness. Information provides meaning to data.”

Prof. Donald Kraft, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LO. Definition 26 on page 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is knowledge recorded on a spatiotemporal support.”

Prof. Yves François Le Coadic, National Technical University, Lyon, France. Definition 27 on page 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is that which informs. In other words, it is the answer to a question of some kind. It is thus related to data and knowledge, as data represents values attributed to parameters, and knowledge signifies understanding of real things or abstract concepts. As it regards data, the information's existence is not necessarily coupled to an observer (it exists beyond an event horizon, for example), while in the case of knowledge, the information requires a cognitive observer. Information is conveyed either as the content of a message or through direct or indirect observation of anything. That which is perceived can be construed as a message in its own right, and in that sense, information is always conveyed as the content of a message. Information can be encoded into various forms for transmission and interpretation (for example, information may be encoded into a sequence of signs, or transmitted via a sequence of signals). It can also be encrypted for safe storage and communication.“

Glossary of Library & Information Science. Librarianship Studies & Information. Technology.Copied 2021-08-23 from https://www.librarianshipstudies.com/2015/04/glossary-of-library-information-science.html

Information: “Information is a relationship between an inner arrangement (i.e., a priori set structure (Sˇmajs and Krob, 2003), implicate order [FOOTNOTE 3: The concepts of implicate and explicate orders are explained in Bohm (1980).] of a system and its present embodiment in reality (explicate order) including mediating memory processes (i.e., historically dependent processes) releasing the meaning.”

Mr. Michal Lorenz, Masaryk University in Brno, Czech Republic. Definition 29 on pages 484-5 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is recorded and organized data that can be communicated (Porat, M.V., and Rubin, M. (1977). The information economy: Definition and measurement (OT Special publication, Vol. 1, pp. 77–120). Washington DC: Office of Telecommunications, U.S. Department of Commerce.) However, it is advisable to distinguish between the various states or conditions of information (e.g. information-as an object [(Buckland, M. (1991b). Information as thing. Journal of the American Society of Information Science, 42(5), 351–360.)], or semantic, syntactic and paradigmatic states [(Menou, M.J. (1995). The impact of information (Part 2): Concepts of information and its value. Information Processing and Management, 31(4), 479–490).”

Prof. Michel J. Menou, Knowledge and ICT management consultant, France. Definition 30 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is facts, figures, and other forms of meaningful representations that when encountered by or presented to a human being are used to enhance his/her understanding of a subject or related topics.”

Prof. Haidar Moukdad, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Definition 31 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58,479-493.

Information: “Information is data which is collected together with commentary, context and analysis so as to be meaningful to others.”

Prof. Charles Oppenheim, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK. Definition 32 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493

Information: “Information can be viewed as that which carries ideas, or as selected and manipulated data..”

Miranda Lee Pao, (1989) Concepts of InformationRetreival, Englewood, Colorado. Libraries Unlimited, Inc. Page 10.

Information: “Information is a phenomenon generated from knowledge and integrated therein, analyzed and interpreted to achieve the transfer process of message (i.e., meaningful content) and the cognitive transformations of people and communities, in a historical, cultural and social context.”

Prof. Lena Vania Pinheiro, Brazilian Institute for Information in Science and Technology, Brazil. Definition 33 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is the intentional composition of data by a sender with the goal of modifying the knowledge state of an interpreter or receiver.”

Prof. Maria Pinto, University of Granada, Spain. Definition 34 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Data, information, knowledge, message. I am unable to understand why data, information, knowledge and message are placed on the same level of analysis. I would suggest considering message as the “vehicle” carrying either data or information (which can be taken as synonymous).“

Prof. Roberto Poli, University of Trento, Italy. Definition 35 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is the meaning that a human assigns to data by means of the known conventions used in its representation. Information is related to meaning and humans (Holmes, N. (2001). The great term robbery. Computer, 34(5), 94–96.)”

Prof. Ronald Rousseau, KHBO, and University of Antwerp. Definition 36 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is an organized collection of disparate datum.”

Mr. Scott Seaman, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO. Definition 37 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is the process of becoming informed; it is dependent on knowledge, which is processed data. Knowledge perceived, becomes information.”

Prof. Richard Smiraglia, Long Island University, Brookville, NY. Definition 38 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: "Knowledge concerning some particular fact, subject or event in any communicable form; for the purpose of documentation it has three basic criteria: existence, availability and semantic content."

H A Stolk; Arthur Herbert Holloway; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD). London, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, 1974. Page 16.

Information: “Information is facts and ideas communicated (or made available for communication).”

Prof. Paul Sturges, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK. Definition 39 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is meaningful data. Or data arranged or interpreted in a way to provide meaning.”

Prof. Carol Tenopir, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN. Definition 40 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is data or knowledge processed into relations (between data and recipient).”

Joanne Twining, Intertwining.org, a virtual information consultancy, USA. Definition 41 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is data organized to produce meaning.”

Prof. Anna da Soledade Vieira, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Definition 42 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “The physicist and philosopher Carl-Friedrich von Weizsacker conceives of information as a twofoldcategory: (1)information is only that which is understood; (2) information is only that which generatesinformation (Weizsacker, 1974” - [Weizsacker, C. F. von (1974).Die Einheit der Natur [The unity of nature].Munich, Germany: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag.“

The Concept of Information, Rafael Capurro P. 362.

Information: “Information is a set of significant signs that has the ability to create knowledge . . . The essence of the information phenomenon has been characterized as the occurrence of a communication process that takes place between the sender and the recipient of the message. Thus, the various concepts of information tend to concentrate on the origin and the end point of this communication process."

Wersig, G., Neveling U. Terminology of documentation : a selection of 1200 basic terms published in English, French, German, Russian, and Spanish. Paris : The Unesco Press; 1976. Page 72.

Definition on page 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493]

Information: “Information is a set of symbols that represent knowledge. Information is what context creates/gives to data. It is cognitive. Normally it is understood as a new and additional element in collecting data and information for planned action.”

Prof. Irene Wormell, Swedish School of Library and Information Science in Boräs, Sweden. Definition 43 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is anything communicated among living things. It is one of the three mainstays supporting the survival and evolution of life, along with energy and materials.”

Prof. Yishan Wu, Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (ISTIC), Beijing, China. Definition 44 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “The word “information” is used to refer to a number of different phenomena. These phenomena have been classified into three groupings: (1) Anything perceived as potentially signifying something (e.g. printed books); (2) The process of informing; and (3) That which is learned from some evidence or communication. All three are valid uses (in English) of the term “information.” I personally am most comfortable with no. 1, then with no. 3, but acknowledge that others have used and may use no 2.”</p>

Definition 6 on pp. 480-1 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “The verb ‘inform’ normally is used in the sense to communicate (i.e., to report, relate, or tell) and comes from the Latin verb informare, which meant to shape (form) an idea. Data is persistent while information is transient, depending on context and the interpretation of the recipient. Information is data received through a communication process that proves of value in making decisions.”

Cited on page 481 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information represents a state of awareness (consciousness) and the physical manifestations they form. Information, as a phenomena, represents both a process and a product; a cognitive/affective state, and the physical counterpart (product of) the cognitive/affective state. The counterpart could range from a scratch of a surface, movement (placement)of a rock; a gesture(movement) speech(sound), written document, etc. (requirement). Information answers questions of what, where, when and who and permutations thereof.“

Cited on page 482 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Collocations of data (information in the narrow sense — see above) that thereby become meaningful to human beings—e.g., as otherwise opaque units of binary code are collected and processed into numbers, artificial and natural languages, graphic objects that convey significance and meaning, etc. Such collocations of data can be made meaningful by human beings (as sense-making beings) especially as such data collocations/information connect with, illuminate, and are illuminated by still larger cognitive frameworks—most broadly, worldviews that further incorporate knowledge and wisdom (see below). On this definition, information can include but is not restricted to data. On the contrary, especially as Borgmann (1999) argues, there are other forms of information (natural, cultural) that are not fully reducible to data as can be transmitted, processed, and/or produced by computers and affiliated technologies.”

Cited on page 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is resources useful or relevant or functional for information seekers.”

Cited on page 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information: “Information is a multi-layered concept with Latin roots (‘informatio’ = to give a form) that go back to Greek ontology and epistemology (Plato’s concept of ‘idea’ and Aristotle’s concepts of ‘morphe’ but also to such concepts as ‘typos’ and ‘prolepsis’) (See Capurro, 1978; Capurro and Hjøerland, 2003). The use of this concept in information science is at the first sight highly controversial but it basically refers to the everyday meaning (since Modernity): “the act of communicating knowledge” (OED). I would suggest to use this definition as far as it points to the phenomenon of message that I consider the basic one in information science.“

Page 481 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Information Architecture: “Abstract patterns of informaiton content or organization are sometimes called architectures, so it is straight-forward from the perspective of the discipline of organizing to define the activity of Information Architecture as designing an abstract and effective organization of information and then exposing that organization to facilitate navigation and information use.“

Robert J. Glushko, Editor. The Discipline ofOrganizing. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2013. Page 495.

Information Architecture: “(n) 1. The structural design of shared information environments. 2. The combination of organization, labeling, search, and navigation systems within web sites and intranets. 3. The art and science of shaping information products and experiences to support useability and findability. 4. an emerging discipline and community of practice focused on bringing principles of design and architecture to the digital landscape.“

Peter Morville and Louis Rosenfeld. Information architecture for the World Wide Web. 3rd ed. Sebastopol, CA : O'Reilly, c2007. Page 4.

Information Resource: “Any entity, electronic or otherwise, capable of conveying or supporting intelligence or knowledge; e.g. a book, a letter, a picture, a sculpture, a database, a person. See also DLO“ (Document-Like Object.)

DCMI Glossary. Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI). Copied 2021-04-05 from https://www.dublincore.org/specifications/dublin-core/usageguide/glossary/#dlo

Information Retrieval: “Information Retrieval refers to the process, methods, and procedures of searching, locating, and retrieving recorded data and information from a file or database. In libraries and archives modern information retrieval is done by searching full-text databases, locating items from bibliographic databases, and document supply via a network. Information retrieval (IR) is the activity of obtaining information system resources that are relevant to an information need from a collection of those resources. Searches can be based on full-text or other content-based indexing. Information retrieval is the science of searching for information in a document, searching for documents themselves, and also searching for the metadata that describes data, and for databases of texts, images or sounds. Information retrieval, Recovery of information, especially in a database stored in a computer. Two main approaches are matching words in the query against the database index (keyword searching) and traversing the database using hypertext or hypermedia links. Keyword searching has been the dominant approach to text retrieval since the early 1960s; hypertext has so far been confined largely to personal or corporate information-retrieval applications. Evolving information-retrieval techniques, exemplified by developments with modern Internet search engines, combine natural language, hyperlinks, and keyword searching. Other techniques that seek higher levels of retrieval precision are studied by researchers involved with artificial intelligence.“

Glossary of Library & Information Science. Librarianship Studies & Information. Technology.Copied 2021-08-23 from https://www.librarianshipstudies.com/2015/04/glossary-of-library-information-science.html

Information Retrieval: “The process of searching, locating, and retrieving data from a file. Synonymous with data retrieval.“

Heartsill Young, Editor. The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science. Chicago : American Library Association (1983). Page 118

Information retrieval: “The recovery of specific information from a collection. It includes all the procedures used to identify, search for, find and remove the specific information sought, but excludes the creation and use of that information. The term has now come to be used generically to include the retrieval of references, documents, facts and data as well as information.“

H A Stolk; Arthur Herbert Holloway; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD). London, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, 1974. Page 16.

Information Retrieval: “The action of or methods and procedures for recovering specific information from a collection of stored data.“

H A Stolk; Arthur Herbert Holloway; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD). London, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, 1974. Page 16.

Information Science: “field of study of functions, structure, and transmission of information (3.1.1.16) and the management of information systems (3.1.8.25)“

ISO. Copied 2021-06-05 from https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:5127:ed-2:v1:en.

Information Science: “Information science is an interdisciplinary field primarily concerned with the analysis, collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval, movement, dissemination, and protection of information. Practitioners within and outside of the field study application and usage of knowledge in organizations along with the interaction between people, organizations, and any existing information systems with the aim of creating, replacing, improving, or understanding information systems. Information science is often (mistakenly) considered a branch of computer science; however, it predates computer science and is a broad, interdisciplinary field, incorporating not only aspects of computer science, but often diverse fields such as archival science, cognitive science, commerce, communications, law, library science, museology, management, mathematics, philosophy, public policy, social sciences, as well as all the fields of study because information exists in all the fields whether it has to do with technology or not. That is why different roles (IT Admin, C.S. engineer, etc.) in Information technology and Computer Science major exist to assist information for all the fields of study. Information science should not be confused with information theory or library science. Information theory is the study of the types of communications we use, such as verbal, signal transmission, encoding, and others. Information science as an academic discipline is often taught in combination with Library science as Library and Information Science. Library science as such is a field related to the dissemination of information through libraries making use of the principles of information science. Information science deals with all the processes and techniques pertaining to the information life cycle, including capture, generation, packaging, dissemination, transformation, refining, repackaging, usage, storage, communication, protection, presentation etc. in any possible manner.“

Glossary of Library & Information Science. Librarianship Studies & Information. Technology.Copied 2021-08-23 from https://www.librarianshipstudies.com/2015/04/glossary-of-library-information-science.html

Information Science: “The study of the generating, acquiring, processing, storing, retrieving, disseminating and use of information; it includes the study of the properties, structure and transmission of information and the development of methods for the useful organization of data.“

H A Stolk; Arthur Herbert Holloway; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD). London, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, 1974. Page 16.

Information Science: “The study of the properties, structure and transmission of information, and the development of methods for the useful organization of data and dissemination of information.“

Terminology of documentation : a selection of 1200 basic terms published in English, French, German, Russian, and Spanish. WersigG, Neveling U. Paris : The Unesco Press, 1976. Page 54.

Information-seeking behavior: "The behavior of an individual to get some information fulfilling his subjective ‘information needs.”

Terminology of documentation : a selection of 1200 basic terms published in English, French, German, Russian, and Spanish. WersigG, Neveling U. Paris : The Unesco Press, 1976. Page 17.

Interoperability: “The ability of different types of computers, networks, operating systems, and applications to work together effectively, without prior communication, in order to exchange information in a useful and meaningful manner. There are three aspects of interoperability: semantic, structural and syntactical.“

DCMI Glossary. Dublin Core Metadata Initiative. Copied 2021-04-05 from https://www.dublincore.org/specifications/dublin-core/usageguide/glossary/

Interoperability: “1. The ability to act together coherently, effectively, and efficiently to achieve tactical, operational, and strategic objectives. (JP 3-0) 2. The condition achieved among communications-electronics systems or items of communicationselectronics equipment when information or services can be exchanged directly and satisfactorily between them and/or their users. (JP 6-0)“

DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms. Copied 2020-04-05 from https://www.jcs.mil/Portals/36/Documents/Doctrine/pubs/dictionary.pdf?ver=2018-05-02-174746-340

Interoperability: “The ability of systems, units, or forces to provide data, information, materiel, and services to, and accept the same from, other systems, units, or forces, and to use the data, information, materiel, and services exchanged to enable them to operate effectively together. IT interoperability includes both the technical exchange of information and the end-to-end operational effectiveness of that exchange of information as required for mission accomplishment. Interoperability is more than just information exchange. It includes systems, processes, procedures, organizations, and missions over the life cycle and must be balanced with cybersecurity.“

Interoperability of Information Technology (IT), Including National SecuritySystems (NSS). Department of Defense INSTRUCTION NUMBER 8330.01, May 21, 2014. Copied 2020-04-05 from https://www.esd.whs.mil/Portals/54/Documents/DD/issuances/dodi/833001p.pdf?ver=2017-12-18-131925-793

Interoperability: “Open programming standards such as the Application Programming Interface (API), object-oriented programming, and Web Services ensure that interoperability is built directly into the core of modern applications."

Bob Boiko. Content management bible. Indianapolis, IN : Wiley Pub., 2005. Page 32.

Interoperability: "The ability of different types of computers, networks, operating systems, and applications to work together effectively, without prior communication, in order to exchange information in a useful and meaningful manner. There are three aspects of interoperability: semantic, structural and syntactical."

DCMI Glossary. Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI). Copied 2021-04-05 from https://www.dublincore.org/specifications/dublin-core/usageguide/glossary/#dlo

Interoperability: "Interoperability goes beyond integration to mean that systems, applicatins, or services that exchange information can make sense of what they receive. Interoperability can involve indentifying corresponding components and relatinships in each system, transforming them syntactically to the same format, structurally to the same granularity, and semantically to the same meaning."

Robert J. Glushko, Editor. The Discipline of Organizing. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2013. Page 496.

Interoperability: "Interoperability is the ability of information systems to exchange metadata and interact in a useful way over communication networks such as the Internet. This is what allows the computers at Amazon.com to talk to your bank or credit card company and receive payment for the book you ordered."

Darin L. Stewart. Building Enterprise Taxonomies. 2nd Edition. Mokita Press, 2011. Page 233.

Interoperability: "The ability of two or more systems or components to exchange information and use the exchanged information without special effort on the part of either system."

Darin L. Stewart. Building Enterprise Taxonomies. 2nd Edition. Mokita Press, 2011. Page 210.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is embodied in humans as the capacity to understand, explain and negotiate concepts, actions and intentions.”

Dr. Hanne Albrechtsen, Institute of Knowledge Sharing, Copenhagen, Denmark. Definition 1 on page 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is knowing, familiarity gained by experience; person’s range of information; a theoretical or practical understanding of; the sum of what is known.”

Prof. Elsa Barber, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Definition 2 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493..

Knowledge: “Knowledge is information that has been appropriate by the user. When information is adequately assimilated, it produces knowledge, modifies the individual’s mental store of information and benefits his development and that of the society in which he lives. Thus, as the mediating agent in the production of knowledge, the information, qualifies itself, in form and substance, as significant structures able to generate knowledge for the individual and his group.”

Prof. Aldo de Albuquerque Barreto, Brazilian Institute for Information in Science and Technology, Brazil. Definition 3 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “(n.) 1. the state of being familiar with something or aware of its existence, usually resulting from experience or study. 2. the range of one’s understanding or information. In some contexts the words knowledge and memory are used synonymously.“

APA Dictionary of Psychology. Copied 2022-01-07 from https://dictionary.apa.org/knowledge

Knowledge: “Knowledge is what has understood and evaluated by the knower.”

Prof. Shifra Baruchson–Arbib, Bar Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel. Definition 4 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is structured and organized information that has developed inside of a cognitive system or is part of the cognitive heritage of an individual (based on Peirce, C.S. (1958). Writings of Charles S. Peirce. A chronological edition. A.W. Burke (Ed.) (Vol. VII–VIII). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.; Hartshorne & Weiss, 1931).“

Prof. Maria Teresa Biagetti, University of Rome 1, Italy. Definition 5 on p. 480 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “The word “knowledge” is best used to refer to what someone knows, which is, in effect, what they believe, including belief that some of the beliefs of others should not be believed. By extension the word “knowledge” is used more loosely for (1) what social groups know collectively; and (2) what is in principle knowable because it has been recorded somehow and could be recovered even though, at any given time, no individual knows (or remembers) it.”

Prof. Michael Buckland, University of California, Berkeley, CA. Definition 6 on page 481 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge “Knowledge is the general understanding and awareness garnered from accumulated information, tempered by experience, enabling new contexts to be envisaged.”

Dr. Quentin L. Burrell, Isle of Man International Business School, Isle of Man. Definition 7 on p. 481 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is that which is known, and it exists in the mind of the knower in electrical pulses. Alternatively, it can be disembodied into symbolic representations of that knowledge (at this point becoming a particular kind of information, not knowledge). Strictly speaking, represented knowledge is information. Knowledge — that which is known — is by definition subjective, even when aggregated to the level of social, or public, knowledge — which is the sum, in a sense, of individual “knowings.” Data and information can be studied as perceived by and “embodied” (known) by the person or as found in the world outside the person...”

Prof. Thomas A. Childers, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA. Definition 9 on p. 481 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge involves both data and the relationships among data elements or their sets. This organization of data based on relationships is what enables one to draw generalizations from the data so organized, and to formulate questions about which one wishes to acquire more data. That is, knowledge begets the quest for knowledge, and it arises from verified or validated ideas (Sowell, 1996).”

Prof.Charles H. Davis, Indiana University. Definition 10 on page 482 in Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge consists of an organized body of information, such information patterns forming the basis of the kinds of insights and judgments which we call wisdom. The above conceptualization may be made concrete by a physical analogy (Stonier, 1993): consider spinning fleece into yarn, and then weaving yarn into cloth. The fleece can be considered analogous to data, the yarn to information and the cloth to knowledge. Cutting and sewing the cloth into a useful garment is analogous to creating insight and judgment (wisdom). This analogy emphasizes two important points: (1) going from fleece to garment involves, at each step, an input of work, and (2) at each step, this input of work leads to an increase in organization, thereby producing a hierarchy of organization.”

Prof. Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic, Mälardalen University, Västerås/Eskilstuna, Sweden. Definition 12 on p. 482 in Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is understood information (answering following basic questions: why?, how?, for which purpose?).”

Prof. Nicolae Dragulanescu, Polytechnics University of Bucharest, Romania. Definition 14 on page 482 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493. [Cites Debons, A., Horne, E., and Cronenweth, S. (1988). Information science: An integrated view. New York: G.K. Hall.]

Knowledge “Knowledge is a personal/cognitive framework that makes it possible for humans to use information.”

Prof. Raya Fidel, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Definition 17 on page 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge “Knowledge is a set of conceptual structures held in human brains and only imperfectly represented by information that can be communicated. Knowledge cannot be communicated by speech or any form of writing, but can only be hinted at.”

Dr. H.M. Gladney, HMG Consulting, McDonald, PA. Definition 19 on page 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493

Knowledge: “Knowledge is one or more sets of relatively stable information. A Message is one or more inferred data sets gleaned from external or internal energetic reactions.”

Prof. Glynn Harmon, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX. Definition 20 on page 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is information that has been given meaning and taken to a higher level. Knowledge emerges from analysis, reflection upon, and synthesis of information. It is used to make a difference in an enterprise, learn a lesson, or solve a problem.”

Dr. Donald Hawkins, Information Today, Medford, NJ. Definition 21 on page 483 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is dynamic objects of cultural experience having the aspect of being action-neutral and a dual nature of abstracting to and from the world.”

Mr. Ken Herold, Hamilton College, Clinton, NY. Definition 23 on p. 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is the rules and organizing principles gleaned from data to aggregate it into information.”

Prof. William Hersh, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR. Definition 24 on page 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493

Knowledge: “maintained, processed, and interpreted information (3.1.1.16)“

ISO. Copied 2022-01-03 fromhttps://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:5127:ed-2:v1:en.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is information with more context and understanding, perhaps with the addition of rules to extend definitions and allow inference.”

Prof. Donald Kraft, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA. Definition 26 on page 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is the result of forming in mind an idea of something.”

Prof. Yves François Le Coadic, National Technical University, Lyon, France. Definition 27 on p. 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is the appropriation of information in the process of learning, acting, interpreting. Knowledge is in the head of people, yet knowledge can be shared. Knowledge refers to the way information is used during the intellectual process.”

Dr. Jo Link-Pezet, Urfist, and University of Social Sciences, France. Definition 28 on page 484 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is tacitly or consciously grasped and interiorized content of information related and meaningfully integrated into a unifying frame of experience among other information contents interiorized in the same way, the complex of which reflects subjective understanding of environment. Mistakes arise from integration of misinformation or from integration of contradictory information into a unifying frame of experience (the second leads to cognitive dissonance and motivates to seek another information).”

Mr. Michal Lorenz, Masaryk University in Brno, Czech Republic. Definition 29 on page 484-5 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is information that is understood, further to its utilization, stored, retrievable and reusable under appropriate circumstances or conditions.”

Prof. Michel J. Menou, Knowledge and ICT management consultant, France. Definition 30 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is a reservoir of information that is stored in the human mind. It essentially constitutes the information that can be “retrieved” from the human mind without the need to consult external information sources.”

Prof. Haidar Moukdad, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Definition 31 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58,479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is a combination of information and a person’s experience, intuition and expertise.”

Prof. Charles Oppenheim, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK. Definition 32 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is processed information which has produced a change in the intellectual framework of learning within an individual.”

Miranda L. Pao, (1989) Concepts of Information Retreival, Englewood, Colorado. Libraries Unlimited, Inc. Page 10.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is a social and cognitive process formed by the passing or assimilated information to thought and to action.”

Prof. Lena Vania Pinheiro, Brazilian Institute for Information in Science and Technology, Brazil. Definition 33 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is the intelligent information processing by the receiver and it consequent incorporation to the individual or social memory”

Prof. Maria Pinto, University of Granada, Spain. Definition 34 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST>, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge hints to either a systematic framework (e.g., laws, rules or regularities, that is higher-order “abstractions” from data) or what somebody or some community knows (“I know that you are married”). In this latter sense knowledge presents a “subjective” side.”

Prof. Roberto Poli, University of Trento, Italy. Definition 35 on page 485 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is apparently not reducible solely to information and data. The problem is to understand ‘what is lacking’, what must be added to information and data in order to achieve true knowledge. My claim is that the meaning of a sign is given by the position of the sign in a field of signs (in a space). On the other hand, the content of a sign is given by the position of the item (denoted by the sign) in a field of items. Data, information, meanings and contents cover the field of knowledge. This amounts to saying that we have knowledge when we know (1) which item is denoted by which sign, (2) the item’s proximal context, (3) the item’s distal contexts, (4) the sign’s position in the field of signs, (5) the item’s position in the field of items.”

Prof. Roberto Poli, University of Trento, Italy - Poli, R. (2001). ALWIS. Ontology for knowledge engineers. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is the summation of information into independent concepts and rules that can explain relationships or predict outcomes.”

Mr. Scott Seaman, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO. Definition 37 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is what is known, more than data, but not yet information. Recorded knowledge may be accessed in formal ways. Unrecorded knowledge is accessible in only chaotic ways.”

Prof. Richard Smiraglia, Long Island University, Brookville, NY. Definition 38 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is the considered product of information. Selection as to what is valid and relevant is a necessary condition of the acquisition of knowledge.”

Prof. Paul Sturges, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK. Definition 39 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is internalized or understood information that can be used to make decisions.”

Prof. Carol Tenopir, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN. Definition 40 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is information scripted into relations with recipient experiences.”

Joanne Twining, Intertwining.org, a virtual information consultancy, USA. Definition 41 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is meaningful content assimilated for use. The three entities can be viewed as hierarchical in terms of complexity, data being the simplest and knowledge, the most complex of the three. Knowledge is the product of a synthesis in our mind that can be conveyed by information, as one of many forms of its externalization and socialization.”

Prof. Anna da Soledade Vieira, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Definition 42 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is enriched information by a person’s or a system’s own experience. It is cognitive based. Knowledge is not transferable, but through information we can communicate about it. (Note that the highest level of information processing is the generation of wisdom, where various kinds of knowledge are communicated and integrated behind an action.”

Prof. Irene Wormell, Swedish School of Library and Information Science in Boräs, Sweden. Definition 43 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is a human construct, which categorize things, record significant events, and find causal relations among things and/or events, etc. in a systematic way.”

Prof. Yishan Wu, Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (ISTIC), Beijing, China. Definition 44 on page 486 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge is ‘no-thing’ (contrary to “information-as-thing” as suggested by Michael Buckland, 1991a), i.e., it is the event of meaning selection of a (psychic/social) system from its ‘world’ on the basis of communication. The “act of communicating knowledge” (OED’s definition of information) is then to be understood as the act of making a meaning offer (=message) leading to understanding (and misunderstanding) on the basis of a selection of meaning (=information). To know is then to understand on the basis of making a difference between ‘message’ (or meaning offer) and ‘information’ (or meaning selection). Human knowledge is, as Popper states, basically conjectural. Or, to put it in hermeneutic terms: understanding is always biased, i.e., based on (implicit) pre-understanding. In more classical terms we distinguish following Aristotle between ‘empirical knowledge’ (or ‘know-how’ = ‘empeiria’) and explicit knowledge (or ‘know-that’, for instance, scientific knowledge or ‘episteme’).”

Page 481 of Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Knowledge: “Knowledge represents a cognitive/affective state that finds definition in meaning and understanding. Knowledge is reflected in the questions of “how” and “why.” Knowledge extends the organism state of awareness (consciousness/ information). Knowledge can be given physical representation (presence) in the material products (technology) thereof (books, film, speech, etc.).”

Cited on page 482 in Zins, C. (2007). Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. JASIST, 58, 479-493.

Language: “(n.) 1. a system for expressing or communicating thoughts and feelings through speech sounds or written symbols. See natural language. 2. the specific communicative system used by a particular group of speakers, with its distinctive vocabulary, grammar, and phonological system. 3. any comparable nonverbal means of communication, such as sign language or the languages used in computer programming (see artificial language).“

APA Dictionary of Psychology. Copied 2022-01-07 from https://dictionary.apa.org/language

Language: “noun About 1280 langage what is said, talk, later language (about 1330); borrowed from Old French langage, from langue tongue, language, from Lating lingua TONGUE; for suffix see - AGE. The sense of speech of a nation, tongue, is first found in Middle English about 1300. The form with u developed through Anglo-French, from assimulation with French langue in middle English.”

Robert K. Barnhart, editor. The Barnhart Concise Dictionary of Etymology / edited by New York : HarperCollins Publishers, c1995. Page 419.

Language: ”...language is both a medium of communication and an informatics tool, which I have formulated in terms of the equation: language = communications plus informatics (Logan 1995 and 2004b).”

Robert K. Logan. What is Information? Chapter 3. Copied 2021-04-18 from https://demopublishing.com/book/what-is-information/chapter-3/

Language: ”(1) A defined set of characters which are used to form symbols, words, etc., and the rules for combining these into meaningful communication. (2) A combination of a vocabulary and rules of syntax.”

H A Stolk; Arthur Herbert Holloway; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD). London, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, 1974. Page 18.

Language: ”A language consists of a vocabulary, semantics, syntax, and pragmatics.”

Elaine Svenonius. The Intellectual Foundation of Information Organization. Cambridge, Massachusetts. The MIT Press. 2000. Page 55.

Lexicon: (n.) the vocabulary of a language and, in psychology, the lexical knowledge of an individual. See mental lexicon. See also productive vocabulary; receptive vocabulary.

APA Dictionary of Psychology. Copied 2022-01-07 from https://dictionary.apa.org/lexicon

Lexicon: n. 1603, borrowed probably through Middle French lexicon from Greek lexikón (biblíon) wordbook. from neuter of lexikós pertaining to words, from léxis word, from légein say. —lexical adj. 1836. formed from English lexicon + al 1

The Barnhart Concise Dictionary of Etymology / edited by Robert K. Barnhart. New York : HarperCollins Publishers, c1995. Page 430.

Library: “From the Latin liber, meaning "book." In Greek and the Romance languages, the corresponding term is bibliotheca. A collection or group of collections of books and/or other print or nonprint materials organized and maintained for use (reading, consultation, study, research, etc.). Institutional libraries, organized to facilitate access by a specific clientele, are staffed by librarians and other personnel trained to provide services to meet user needs. By extension, the room, building, or facility that houses such a collection, usually but not necessarily built for that purpose. Directory information on libraries is available alphabetically by country in World Guide to Libraries, a serial published by K.G. Saur. Two comprehensive worldwide online directories of library homepages are Libdex and Libweb. See also the UNESCO Libraries Portal. Abbreviated lib. See also: academic library, government library, monastic library, new library, proto-library, public library, special library, and subscription library.“

“Also, a collective noun used by publishers, particularly during the Victorian period, for certain books published in series (example: Everyman's Library). “

“Also refers to a collection of computer programs or data files, or a set of ready-made reusable routines, sometimes called modules, that can be linked to a program at the time it is compiled, relieving the programmer of the necessity to repeat the code each time the routine is used in a program.”

Copied December 29, 2020, from ABC CLIO at https://products.abc-clio.com/ODLIS/odlis_a.aspx

Library: “Library as a collection of materials organized to provide physical bibliographical and intellectual access to group with a staff that is trained to provide services and program related to information needs of the target group.”

American Library Association : Definition and meaning. Copied February 4, 2014, at: http:// www.lisbdnet.com/library-definition-and-meaning/

Library: “The word "library" seems to be used in so many different aspects now, from the brick-andmortar public library to the digital library. Public libraries—and indeed, all libraries--are changing and dynamic places where librarians help people find the best source of information whether it's a book, a web site, or database entry.“

American Library Association : Definition and meaning. Copied March 10, 2020 from http:// www.lisbdnet.com/library-definition-and-meaning/

Library: “n. About 1380 librarye place containing books; also librarie collection of books (before 1382); borrowed through Anglo-French librarie, from Old French librairie collection of books, and directly from Latin librãium chest for books, from liber (genitive libri) book, paper, parchment, inner bark of a tree (used in early times for writing). The Romance languages now use the word to mean bookstore, derived from that sense in Late Latin. —librarian n. 1670, scribe; later, custodian of a library (1713); formed from English library + -an.“

The Barnhart Concise Dictionary of Etymology / edited by Robert K. Barnhart. New York : HarperCollins Publishers, c1995. Page 431.

Library :“Library, traditionally, collection of books used for reading or study, or the building or room in which such a collection is kept. The word derives from the Latin liber, “book,” whereas a Latinized Greek word, bibliotheca, is the origin of the word for library in German, Russian, and the Romance languages.“

Encyclopedia Britannica. Copied 2021-06-01 from https://www.britannica.com/search?query=library

Library “(3.2.3.02): Organization (3.1.1.55) or part of an organization, the main aim of which is to facilitate the use of such information resources (3.1.1.44), services (3.1.1.59) and facilities as are required to meet the informational, research, educational, cultural or recreational needs of its users.“

“Note 1 to entry: The supply of the required information resources can be accomplished by building and maintaining a collection and/or by organizing access to information resources.“

“Note 2 to entry: These are the basic requirements for a library and do not exclude any additional resources and services incidental to its main purpose. [SOURCE: ISO 2789:2013, definition 2.1.6]“

“Note 3 to entry: Libraries fulfill the functions of an information and documentation organization (3.2.3.37).“

“Note 4 to entry: For “library” in a data processing sense, see also ISO/TS 13584-35:2010 and ISO/IEC 2382:2015, definition 2122125.“

ISO. Copied 20210605 from https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:5127:ed-2:v1:en:term:3.6.4.1.01

Library (Digital Library): “electronic library. Library (3.2.3.02) that provides services (3.1.1.59) associated with digital resources (3.3.3.03) or those aspects of library (3.2.3.02) services that have a large digital component.“

ISO. Copied 20210605 from https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:5127:ed-2:v1:en:term:3.6.4.1.01

Library: “A library is a collection of resources in a variety of formats that is (1) organized by information professionals or other experts who (2) provide convenient physical, digital, bibliographic, or intellectual access and (3) offer targeted services and programs (4) with the mission of educating, informing, or entertaining a variety of audiences (5) and the goal of stimulating individual learning and advancing society as a whole. (p.1)“

The librarian's book of lists / edited by George M. Eberhart. Chicago: ALA, 2010. Page 1

Library (Libraries): “In the strict sense of the term a “library” is a ‘collection of materials organized for use’. The word derives from the Latin word’ ‘liber’, a book. The latinized Greek word ‘bibliotheca’ is the origin of the word for ‘library’ in the Greek, Russian and Romance languages. There is a good reason to believe that the root concept of ‘library’ is deeply embedded in our ways of thinking about the world and coping with its problems. In its primary role as guardian of the social memory, there are many parallels with the ways in which human memory orders, stores and retrieves the information necessary for survival. The study of library history and its related disciplines bears witness that the instinct to preserve, the passion to collect, and the desire to control have been dominant influences in the genesis and growth of the library in the history of civilization.”

John Feather and Paul Sturges, editors. International Encyclopedia of Information and Library Science, second edition. London ; New York : Routledge, 2003. Page 371.

Library: “Library is an organization, or part of an organization, the main aim of which is to facilitate the use of such information resources, services and facilities as are required to meet the informational, research, educational, cultural or recreational needs of its users.”

International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA). Copied April 2, 2020 from https:// librarymap.ifla.org/images/files/librarymapoftheworld_definitions_en.pdf

Library: “1. A collection of materials organized to provide physical, bibliographic, and intellectual access to a target group , with a staff that is trained to provide services and programs related to the information needs of the target group. 2. In computer science, an organized collection of computer programs available to users of the machine.”

Heartsill Young, Editor. The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science. Chicago : American Library Association (1983). Page 130

Library: “A library is a data management system for documents frequently, though not necessarily, organized in a hierarchy of “folders” and “drawers.” Also called a “file cabinet.”

Gartner, Inc. Copied March 11, 2020 from https://www.gartner.com/en/information-technology/glossary/library

Library: “For purposes of this work it is assumed that a library is a collection of graphic materials arranged for relatively easy use, cared for by an individual or individuals familiar with that arrangement, and accessible to at least a limited number of persons.“

Michael H. Harris. History of Libraries in the Western World. Metuchen, N.J. : Scarecrow Press, 1995. Page 3.

Library: “1) A collection of books and other literary material kept for reading, study and consultation. 2) A place, building, rooms, set apart for the keeping and use of a collection of books etc.”

Harrods librarian’s glossary and reference book. Copied March 11, 2020, from http://www.lisbdnet.com/library-definition-and-meaning/

Library: “Library is an organization, or part of an organization, the main aim of which is to facilitate the use of such information resources, services and facilities as are required to meet the informational, research, educational, cultural or recreational needs of its users.“

International Federation of Library Associations, LIBRARY MAP OF THE WORLD DEFINITIONS, copied March 11, 2020, from https://librarymap.ifla.org/images/files/librarymapoftheworld_definitions_en.pdf

Library: “In Latin and Greek, the idea of a bookcase is represented by Bibliotheca and Bibliothēkē (Greek: βιβλιοθήκη): derivatives of these mean library in many modern languages, e.g. French bibliothèque.“

“The first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing—the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in Sumer, some dating back to 2600 BC. Private or personal libraries made up of written books appeared in classical Greece in the 5th century BC. In the 6th century, at the very close of the Classical period, the great libraries of the Mediterranean world remained those of Constantinople and Alexandria.“

“A library is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, a corporation, or a private individual. Public and institutional collections and services may be intended for use by people who choose not to—or cannot afford to—purchase an extensive collection themselves, who need material no individual can reasonably be expected to have, or who require professional assistance with their research. In addition to providing materials, libraries also provide the services of librarians who are experts at finding and organizing information and at interpreting information needs. Libraries often provide quiet areas for studying, and they also often offer common areas to facilitate group study and collaboration. Libraries often provide public facilities for access to their electronic resources and the Internet. Modern libraries are increasingly being redefined as places to get unrestricted access to information in many formats and from many sources. They are extending services beyond the physical walls of a building, by providing material accessible by electronic means, and by providing the assistance of librarians in navigating and analyzing very large amounts of information with a variety of digital tools.“

Librarianship Studies & Information Technology. Copied March 11, 2020 from https://www.librarianshipstudies.com/2017/07/library.html

Library: “A library is a public institution or establishment charged with the care of books, the duty of making them accessible those who require the use of them.”

Ranganathan, S.R. Copied March 11, 2020, from American Library Association (ALA), "Library :: Definition and meaning glossary of library and information science" from http://www.lisbdnet.com/library-definition-and-meaning/

Library: ”From the Latin liber meaning "book" (in Greek and the Romance languages the corresponding term is bibliotheca). A collection or group of collections of books and/or other materials organized and maintained for use (reading, consultation, study, research, etc.). Institutional libraries, organized to facilitate access by a specific clientele, are staffed by librarians and other personnel trained to provide services to meet user needs. By extension, the room, building, or facility that houses such a collection, usually but not necessarily built for that purpose. Directory information on libraries is available alphabetically by country in World Guide to Libraries, a serial published by K. G. Saur. Two comprehensive worldwide online directories of library homepages are LibDex and Libweb. Abbreviated lib. See also: academic library, government library, public library, and special library. Also, a collective noun used by publishers, particularly during the Victorian period, for certain books published in series (example: Everyman’s Library). Also refers to a collection of computer programs or data files, or a set of ready-made reusable routines, sometimes called modules, that can be linked to a program at the time it is compiled, relieving the programmer of the necessity to repeat the code each time the routine is used in a program.”

ODLIS: Online Dictionary of Library and Information Science. Copied March 11, 2020 from http://vlado.fmf.uni-lj.si/pub/networks/data/dic/odlis/odlis.pdf

Library: ”n. ~ 1. A collection of published materials, including books, magazines, sound and video recordings, and other formats. - 2. A building used to house such a collection. - 3. Computing · Commonly used subroutines or functions collected for use in different programs.”

Society of American Archivists. A Glossary of Archival and Records Terminology, Copied March 11, 2020 from https://www2.archivists.org/glossary

Library: ”Organisation, or part of an organisation, whose main aims are to build and maintain a collection and to facilitate the use of such information resources and facilities as are required to meet the informational, research, educational, cultural or recreational needs of its users; these are the basic requirements for a library and do not exclude any additional resources and services incidental to its main purpose (ISO, 2006). It includes any organized collection of books and periodicals in electronic or in printed form or of any other graphic or audio-visual materials (based on ’UNESCO, 1970). It includes virtual libraries, digital catalogues.”

Source definition: UIS adapted from International Organization for Standardization (ISO), ISO 2789, Information and documentation – International library statistics, 2006 and; UNESCO, Recommendation concerning the International Standardization of Library Statistics, 1970.

UNESCO. Copied 2021-04-14 from http://uis.unesco.org/en/glossary

Library: ”Any organized collection of printed books and periodicals or of any other graphic or audio-visual materials and the service of a staff to provide and facilitate the use of such materials as are required to meet the informational, research, educational or recreational needs of its users.”

Wersig, G., Neveling U. Terminology of documentation : a selection of1200 basic terms published in English, French, German, Russian, andSpanish. Paris : The Unesco Press; 1976. Page 178.

Metadata: ”Literally 'data about data', metadata is best understood as short, structured and standardized description of information resources. The term first gained wide use in the 1990's, but the idea had been instantiated in library cataloguing rules in the mid-19th century. For an accessible introduction to metadata principles see Haynes (2004) [Haynes, D. Metadata for information management and retrieval, London: Facet Publishing]; for more detail of specific formats and schemes see Zeng and Qin (2008) [Zeng, M.L. and Qin, J. (2008) Metadata, London: Facet Publishing], Miller (2011 [Miller, S. J. (2011) Metadata for digital collections: a how-to-do-it manual, London: Facet Publishing] and Hider (2012) [Hider, P. (2012) Information resource description: creating and managing metadata, London: Facet Publishing].”

”Metadata records are surrogates for the original items, used in its place. The main purposes for metadata are as means to identify, retrieve, use and manage information resources. This includes retrieval, finding required items by searching or browsing, display, deciding whether an item is likely to be useful; legal issues, noting the rights status of items; and records management noting who has responsibility for the document, and when they should be reviewed, archived, etc. It is also desirable that metadata can be shared and exchanged, hence the requirement for standardization.”

David Bawden and Lyn Robinson. Introduction to Information Science. Chicago : Neal-Schuman, 2012. Page 108.

Metadata: ”Information about a dataset that makes it easier to find, understand and use. Metadata may describe the dataset’s structure, elements, creation, access, format, and content. Metadata may also include the title and description, method of collection, limitations, author, publisher, area and time period covered, license, date and frequency of release.”

California Department of General Services (DGS), State Administrative Manual. DEFINITIONS - 4819.2. Copied 2021-06-05 from https://www.dgs.ca.gov/Resources/SAM/TOC/4800/4819-2

Metadata: ”Metadata is data associated with objects which relieves their potential users of having to have full advance knowledge of their existence or characteristics. A user might be a program or a person.”

Lorcan Dempsey and Rachel Heery. Metadata: a current view of practice and issue. Journal of Documentation, 54(2), March 1998. pp. 145-172. Available online at http://ukln.ac.uk/metadata/publications/jdmetadata/

Metadata: ”In general, "data about data;" functionally, "structured data about data." Metadata includes data associated with either an information system or an information object for purposes of description, administration, legal requirements, technical functionality, use and usage, and preservation. . In the case of Dublin Core, information that expresses the intellectual content, intellectual property and/or instantiation characteristics of an information resource. See Section 1.1 of this guide. For a history of the term See Caplan,pp. 1-3.”

DCMI Glossary. Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI). Copied 2021-04-05 from https://www.dublincore.org/specifications/dublin-core/usageguide/glossary/#dlo

Metadata: ”Metadata are structured information used to find, access, use and manage information resources, primarily in a digital environment. A metadata scheme consists of a pre-defined set of elements that contain information about a resource. Two major factors influenced the development of metadata schemes: the need for systematic discovery and retrieval of networked resources, and the ability to embed metadata in the digital object. The term 'metadata' is a late entry in the vocabulary of the organization of information, but the concept is not. Librarians, information specialists and archivists used 'bibliogrphic data' to organize and produce a variety of retieval tools, including CATALOGUES, INDEXES, and FINDING AIDS. In the 1980's, computer scientists began to use the term 'metadata' to describe information that documented the characteristics of the data contained in DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS (DBMS). This use in DBMS popularized the definition of metadata as 'data about data' and began association of the term with a computer environment. The various methods of information organization converged in the network environment of the 1990's, and 'metadata' became the common term for information about a resource.”

John Feather and Paul Sturges, editors. International Encyclopedia of Information and Library Science, second edition. London ; New York : Routledge, 2003. Pages 417-418.

Metadata: ”The best known definition is the easily remembered “Data about Data.” Other definitions, however, are much more descriptive. In the 11th ed. of Introduction to Cataloging and Classification, Joudrey, Taylor, and Miller state that metadata is: “Structured information that describes the attributes of resources for the purposes of identification, discovery, selection, use, access, and management.” In short, metadata is information about a resource. This broad definition includes elements such as titles; edition statements; the names of creators, contributors, and others; subjects; dimensions; location information; contents; and so on. Metadata allows users to find, identify, select, and obtain the resources in our collections.”

Glossary of Library & Information Science. Copied 2021-03-25 from https://www.librarianshipstudies.com/2015/04/glossary-of-library-information-science.html.

Metadata: ”Metadata is often defined as "data about data," a definition that is nearly as ubiquitous as it is unhelpful. A more content-full definition of metadata is that it is structured description for information resources of any kind, which makes it a superset of bibliographic description.

Robert J. Glushko, Editor. The Discipline of Organizing. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2013. Page 498.

Metadata: ”Metadata nowadays can be defined in two different ways: One is narrower in scope, implying descriptions provided for networked information and digital resources by following a standard or framework (e.g., Dublin Core) that is specifically created for this purpose. The other definition is broader in coverage, including cataloging and indexing data created for any kind of documents through the use of traditional methods for describing and organizing information. In this sense, for example, cataloging data produced with Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) and Anglo-American Cataloging Rules/MAchine Readable Cataloging (AACR/MARC) is also regarded as metadata.”

Heting Chu. Information Representation and Retrieval in the Digital Age Medford, New Jersey : Information Today, Inc.; 2010. Page 41.

Metadata: ”Literally, "data about data." Structured information describing information resources/objects for a variety of purposes. Although AACR2/MARC cataloging is formally metadata, the term is generally used in the library community for nontraditional schemes such as the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set, the VRA Core Categories, and the Encoded Archival Description (EAD). Metadata has been categorized as descriptive, structural, and administrative. Descriptive metadata facilitates indexing, discovery, identification, and selection. Structural metadata describes the internal structure of complex information resources. Administrative metadata aids in the management of resources and may include rights management metadata, preservation metadata, and technical metadata describing the physical characteristics of a resource. For an introduction to metadata, please see Priscilla Caplan's Metadata Fundamentals for All Librarians (American Library Association, 2003). Also spelled meta-data. See also: Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard and Metadata Object Description Schema.”

Joan M. Reitz. Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science. Copied 2021-03-24 from https://products.abc-clio.com/ODLIS/odlis_m.aspx.

Metadata: ”n. a characterization or description documenting the identification, management, nature, use, or location of information resources (data)”

"Notes: Metadata is commonly defined as “data about data.” Metadata is frequently used to locate or manage information resources by abstracting or classifying those resources or by capturing information not inherent in the resource. Typically metadata is organized into distinct categories and relies on conventions to establish the values for each category. For example, administrative metadata may include the date and source of acquisition, disposal date, and disposal method. Descriptive metadata may include information about the content and form of the materials. Preservation metadata may record activities to protect or extend the life of the resource, such as reformatting. Structural metadata may indicate the interrelationships between discrete information resources, such as page numbers. In terms of archives, MARC format and EAD are standards for structuring descriptive metadata about collections. Dublin Core is a standard for structuring metadata that is intended for describing web resources. In terms of information technology, metadata includes the documentation of data architecture, properties, and methods necessary to store, retrieve, and use the data in a meaningful manner. To the extent that data is a record, it may also include administrative, descriptive, preservation, and structural information.”

Dictionary of Archives Terminology. Society of American Archivists. Copied 2021-03-24 from https://dictionary.archivists.org/entry/metadata.html

Metadata Record: ”A syntactically correct representation of the descriptive information (metadata) for an information resource. In the case of Dublin Core, a representation of the Dublin Core™ elements that has been defined for the resource. The majority of metadata records and record fragments in this document are presented in HTML syntax.”

DCMI Glossary. Dublin Core Metadata Initiative. Copied 2021-04-05 from https://www.dublincore.org/specifications/dublin-core/usageguide/glossary/

Ontology: ”(n.) the branch of philosophy that deals with the question of existence itself. From some philosophical perspectives, ontology is synonymous with metaphysics, in that both ask fundamental questions about what reality is. However, from the perspective of contemporary existentialism and hermeneutics, ontology implies a concern with the meaning of existence that is largely lacking in traditional metaphysics. Whereas metaphysics asks “What is there?” or “What is fundamental?,” the question of ontology is often posed as “What does it mean to ‘be’ at all?” For example, to say that Smith is a professor is to rely on a very different sense of the verb be than is present in a statement that Smith is hungry. Likewise, Smith is not a professor in the same way that a painting is beautiful. Contemporary approaches to ontology often take their analytical point of departure from the work of German philosopher Martin Heidegger (1889–1976). In this tradition, psychology is the pursuit of an adequate understanding of the ontology of human beings. It asks, or ought to ask, “What does it mean to be a human being?” See being-in-the-world; Dasein; existential phenomenology. —ontological adj.”

APA Dictionary of Psychology. Copied 2022-01-07 from https://dictionary.apa.org/ontology

Ontology: ”A term from the discipline of philosophy appropriated by the ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) community. Whilst in philosophy it signifies a systematic account of existence, in AI it is used in a more limited sense as a specification, or a set of definitions, of a conceptualization. A knowledge-based system, or AI agent, is necessarily committed to some conceptualization of the domain within which it is to operate. In practice an ontology sets out the concepts and relationships that make up the formal vocabulary used in building an AI agent. Ontologies are an essential component of the SEMANTIC WEB.”

David Bawden and Lyn Robinson. Introduction to Information Science. Chicago : Neal-Schuman, 2012. Page 108.

Ontology: ”A hierarchical structure that formally defines the semantic relationship of a set of concepts. Used to create structured / controlled vocabularies for the discovery or exchange of information. A thesaurus, like the AAT is an example.”

DCMI Glossary. Dublin Core Metadata Initiative. Copied 2021-04-05 from https://www.dublincore.org/specifications/dublin-core/usageguide/glossary/

Ontology: ”Ontology is a branch of philosophy concerned with what exists in reality and the general features and relations of whatever that may be. Computer science has adopted ontology to refer to any computer-processable resource that represents the relationships among words and meanings in some knowledge domain.”

Robert J. Glushko, Editor. The Discipline of Organizing. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2013. Page 502.

Passage Retrieval: ”Passage retrieval (also called information retrieval) denotes finding the very information or document passage (e.g., a paragraph or an arbitrary length of document segments) the end user needs. In contrast, document retrieval implies getting a full document for the end user, even if only one short passage is needed.”

Chu, H., Information Representation and Retrieval in the Digital Age Medford, New Jersey : Information Today, INc.; 2010. Page 14.

Passage Retrieval: ”Passage Retrieval systems return the precise piece of text where it is supposed to find the answer to the query, a fact that is especially important when large documents are returned.”

Fernando Llopis, José Luis Vicedo and Antonio Ferrández, Using a Passage Retrieval System to Support Question Answering Process. Page 62. Downloaded November 30, 2020, from file:///C:/Users/Owner/Downloads/Llopis2002_Chapter_UsingAPassageRetrievalSystemTo.pdf

Passage Retrieval: ”A passage retrieval system can be defined as a specialized type of IR application that retrieves relevant passages (pieces of texts) rather than providing a whole ranked set of documents.”

Mourad Sarrouti, and Said Ouatik El Alaoui. A passage retrieval method based on probabilistic information retrievalmodel and UMLS concepts in biomedical question answering. Journal of Biomedical Informatics, 68 (2017) 96–103.

Passage Retrieval: ”Passage retrieval ... is the task of retrieving only the portions of a document that are relevant to a particular information need. It could be useful for limiting the amount of non-relevant material presented to a searcher, or for helping the searcher locate the relevant portions of documents more quickly.”

Courtney Wade and James Allan. Passage Retrieval and Evaluation Center for Intelligent Information Retrieval, Department of Computer Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA. Downloaded November 30, 2020, from http://maroo.cs.umass.edu/getpdf.php?id=541.

Protolanguage: (n.) in genetic linguistics, a posited common ancestor of the members of a language family. Most protolanguages have been partially reconstructed through comparison among different members of a language family. The most celebrated protolanguage is Proto-Indo-European, the unrecorded prehistoric language that is presumed to be the ancestor of all Indo-European languages. See sound change.

APA Dictionary of Psychology. Copied 2022-01-07 from https://dictionary.apa.org/

Resource Description Framework (RDF): ”The basic language for writing metadata; a foundation which provides a robust flexible architecture for processing metadata on the Internet. RDF will retain the capability to exchange metadata between application communities, while allowing each community to define and use the metadata that best serves their needs. For more information see http://www.w3.org/RDF/”

DCMI Glossary. Dublin Core Metadata Initiative. Copied 2021-04-05 from https://www.dublincore.org/specifications/dublin-core/usageguide/glossary/

Resource Discovery: ”The process through which one searches and retrieves an information resource.”

DCMI Glossary. Dublin Core Metadata Initiative. Copied 2021-04-05 from https://www.dublincore.org/specifications/dublin-core/usageguide/glossary/

Semantic: ”(adj.) of or pertaining to meaning, particularly that of words and other symbols. For example, semantic analysis is a computational process for examining in detail the language used within a text so as to extract and analyze its stated and often implied meanings; the method utilizes statistical manipulations of word usage frequencies to clarify relationships among elements or identify thematic patterns.”

APA Dictionary of Psychology. Copied 2022-01-07 from https://dictionary.apa.org/semantic

Semantics: ”The branch of linguistics concerned with the meaning of the words, signs, and symbols that constitute the elements of change and evolution in a spoken or written language. Also, the branch of semiotics that deals with relationships of meaning between signs, and between signs and their referents, within a system of communication. See also: semantic relation.”

Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science. Joan M. Reitz,ABC-CLIO, LLC. At: https://products.abc-clio.com/ODLIS/odlis_s.aspx

Semantic Gap: ”The semantic gap is the difference in perspective in naming and description when resources are described by automated processes rather than by people.”

Robert J. Glushko, Editor. The Discipline of Organizing. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2013. Page 506.

Semantic Interoperability: ”Ability to search for digital information across heterogeneous distributed databases whose metadata schemas have been mapped to one another. It is achieved through agreements about content description standards; for example, Dublin Core, Anglo-American Cataloging Rules.”

DCMI Glossary. Dublin Core Metadata Initiative. Copied 2021-04-05 from https://www.dublincore.org/specifications/dublin-core/usageguide/glossary/

Semiotics: “(n.) the study of verbal and nonverbal signs and of the ways in which they communicate meaning within particular sign systems. Unlike semantics, which restricts itself to the meanings expressed in language, semiotics is concerned with human symbolic activity generally. As an academic discipline, semiotics developed within the general framework of 20th-century structuralism, taking as its premise the view that signs can only generate meanings within a pattern of relationships to other signs. Also called semiology. [introduced by Charles S. Peirce]“

APA Dictionary of Psychology. Copied 2022-01-07 from https://dictionary.apa.org/semiotics

Semiotics: “n. 1880, borrowed from Greek sémeiótikós observant of signs, adjective to sémeíõsis indication (earlier sēmeíōtis), from sēmeioûn to signal, from sēmeioûn sign, from sêma sign; for suffix see –ICS. A form of the word closer to Greek is found in English semiotics that branch of medicine dealing with the interpretation of symptoms (1670), and is referred to even earlier in the adjective semeiotical (1588). In the general sense of signs or symbols and the study of their use in conveying meaning, the word is recorded as early as 1641.“

The Barnhart Concise Dictionary of Etymology / edited by Robert K. Barnhart. New York : Harper Collins Publishers, c1995. Page 4702.

Semiotics: “The science of signs and sign systems; it is built round the distinction between the signifier, the sign and the signified. The discipline is often divided into three main subdivisions: semantics, syntactics and pragmatics, each of which can be pure, descriptive or applied. The significance of semiotics for INFORMATION THEORY is its abiity to provide an analytic framework for forms of documentation and modes of COMMUNICATION..“

John Feather and Paul Sturges, editors. International Encyclopedia of Information and Library Science, second edition. London ; New York : Routledge, 2003. Page 574.

Structural Metadata: See also "Administraative Metadata" and "Descriptive Metadata."

Structural Metadata: “Structural metadata defines the digital object's internal organization and is needed for display and navigation of that object.“

DCMI Glossary. Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI). Copied 2021-04-05 from https://www.dublincore.org/specifications/dublin-core/usageguide/glossary/#dlo

Syntax: “(n.) the set of rules that describes how words and phrases in a language are arranged into grammatical sentences, or the branch of linguistics that studies such rules. With morphology, syntax is one of the two traditional subdivisions of grammar. —syntactic or syntactical adj.“

APA Dictionary of Psychology. Copied 2022-01-07 from https://dictionary.apa.org/syntax

Surrogate: “Surrogates, or substitutes, are used for various purposes in LIS. In PRESERVATION, a surrogate can be a copy of a document created to protect the original, created by photography or DIGITIZATION, which is offered to all users other than those for whom direct examnination of the original is unavoidalbe. In special librarianship and information science, it could be an ABSTRACT or other summary of a document, whihc is capable of satisfying user requirements in a proportion of cases.“

John Feather and Paul Sturges, editors. International Encyclopedia of Information and Library Science, second edition. London ; New York : Routledge, 2003. Page 625.

Surrogate: “A library catalog is a surrogate for the actual collection. It is made up of brief representations of items in the library collection. A library catalog entry is a surrogate for the item, with key information that describes the item such as author, title, publication information and physical characteristics. The catalog also places items in a topical representation of knowledge using subject headings and classification numbers. These topical entities add another layer of indirection: libraries build artificial knowledge organization systems for the purposes of description, which are considered to be first-order objects by themselves. In Semantic Web terms [1], http://libris.kb.se/resource/bib/9800324 identifies "real-world object" book: its dc:creator value refers to the author of the book, not the Swedish Library which curates the bibliographic data. But http://viaf.org/viaf/95152561, an authority item, does not identify a real person directly. It identifies a name authority cluster created by VIAF, which eventually leads to a resource standing for the person itself (http://viaf.org/viaf/24604287/#foaf:Person). See [2] for a short discussion on this.“

[1] http://www.w3.org/TR/cooluris/#semweb

[2] http://www.w3.org/TR/2005/WD-swbp-skos-core-guide-20051102/#secmodellingrdf

Library terminology informally explained. W3C Semantic Web. Copied 2022-01-04 from https://www.w3.org/2001/sw/wiki/Library_terminology_informally_explained

Syntax: "n. 1605, orderly arrangement of parts or elements; borrowed from French syntax, and directly from Late Latin syntaxis, from Greek sýntaxis a putting together or in order, arrangement, syntax, from stem of syntássein put in order (syn- together, syn-1 + tássein; arrange). The grammatical sense is first recorded in English in 1613. —syntactic adj. 1807, belonging or relating to grammatical syntax; borrowed from New Latin syntacticus, from Greek syntaktikós, a joining together or in order, from syntássein put in order; for suffix see —IC.

The Barnhart Concise Dictionary of Etymology / art Concise Dictionary of Etymology / edited by Robert K. Barnhart. New York : HarperCollins Publishers, c1995. Pages 789-790.

Taxonomy: SEE ALSO Enterprise Taxonomy

Taxonomy: “(n.) the science of classification (e.g., biological taxonomy) or any scheme of classification itself. —taxonomic adj. —taxonomist n.“

APA Dictionary of Psychology. Copied 2022-01-07 from https://dictionary.apa.org/taxonomy

Taxonomy: ”A classificatin devised for a particular environment or set of information. They usually reflect the local conditions closely, and are adapted to the local 'culture'. They are usually modified and extended more frequently than other information organization tools.”

David Bawden and Lyn Robinson. Introduction to Information Science. Chicago : Neal-Schuman, 2013. Page 116.

Taxonomy: ”In general terms, systematic classification according to principles or general laws. In digital terms, automated classification of documents in a hierarchy based on information gathered by a metacrawler. May refer to a classification of DCMI terms. A classification system such as Library of Congress Classification is an example of a taxonomy.”

DCMI Glossary. Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI). Copied 2021-04-05 from https://www.dublincore.org/specifications/dublin-core/usageguide/glossary/#dlo

Taxonomy (Taxonomies): ”The word taxonomy is normally understood to mean CLASSIFICATION, and is used mainly in the life sciences. It is not clear where or when the word was given a different slant in the general area of information retrieval and so, perhaps not surprisingly, there is no clearly agreed definition of the term as it is now being used. This has led to some confusion as to whether they are the same as a classification or a THESAURUS; but while they are clearly related to those retrieval tools, they usually display different characteristics, and since they are mostly used on the Internet, intranets or extranets, they may be closely associated with the new generation of information retrieval software.”

John Feather and Paul Sturges, editors. International Encyclopedia of Information and Library Science, second edition. London ; New York : Routledge, 2003. Page 629.

Taxonomy: ”A taxonomy is a hierarchy that is created by a set of interconnected class inclusion relationships.”

Robert J. Glushko, Editor. The Discipline of Organizing. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2013. Page 509.

Taxonomy: ”1) A hierarchically structured system of organizing names of concepts. 2) Any knowledge organizatin system, whether hierarchical or not, involving controlled names of concepts.”

Heather Hedden. The Accidental Taxonomist. Medford, New Jersey : Information Today, Inc., [2016] Page 396.

Taxonomy: ”A collection of controlled vocabulary terms organized into a hierarchical structure. Each in a taxonomy is in one or more parent/child (broader/narrower) relationships to other terms in the taxonomy.”

Darin L. Stewart. Building Enterprise Taxonomies. 2nd Edition. Mokita Press, 2011. Page 216.

Taxonomy: ”(1) The science of classification. (2) The study of the name and meaning of items in generic assemblies.”

H A Stolk; Arthur Herbert Holloway; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD). London, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, 1974. Page 31.

Thesaurus: ”A structured vocabulary make up of names, words, and other information, typically including synonyms and/or hierarchical relationships for the purpose of cross-referencing in order to organize a collection of concepts for reference and retrieval. See the ANSI/NISO Standard for thesaurus construction Z39.19-2003 (R1998; ISO 2788). A controlled vocabulary of terms or concepts that are structured hierarchically (parent/child relationships) or as equivalences (synonyms), and related terms (associative). See also Subject headings and glossary. A thesaurus is a taxonomy.”

DCMI Glossary. Dublin Core Metadata Initiative Copied 2021-04-05 from https://www.dublincore.org/specifications/dublin-core/usageguide/glossary/#dlo

Thesaurus: ”A lexicon in which words are grouped by concept, thus providing a grouping or classification of synonyms or near-synonyms, and a set of equivalent classes of terminology. Thesauri of the most commonly used terms in various fields have been published so as to permit a harmonizing of indexing terminology in those fields.”

John Feather and Paul Sturges, editors. International Encyclopedia of Information and Library Science, second edition. London ; New York : Routledge, 2003. Page 633.

Thesaurus: ”A thesaurus is a reference work that organizes words according to their semantic and lexical relationships. Thesauri are often used by professionals when they describe resources.”

Robert J. Glushko, Editor. The Discipline ofOrganizing. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2013. Page 510.

Thesaurus: ”A thesaurus is a controlled vocabulary of semantically and generically related terms covering a specific area of knowledge. Designed specifically for concept coordination, it is a terminological control device which translates both the natural language used in documents by indexers, and topics sought by searchers into a mutually precise language.”

Miranda Lee Pao, (1989) Concepts of InformationRetreival, Englewood, Colorado. Libraries Unlimited, Inc. Page 119.

Thesaurus: ”A controlled vocabulary arranged in a known order and structured so that the various relationships among terms are displayed clearly and identified by standardized relationship indicators. Relationship indicators should be employed reciprocally. Its purpose is to promote consistency in the indexing of content objects, especially for postcoordinated information storage and retrieval systems, and to facilitate browsing and searching by linking entry terms with terms. Thesauri may also facilitate the retrieval of content objects in free text searching.”

Darin L. Stewart. Building Enterprise Taxonomies.2nd Edition. Mokita Press, 2011. Page 216.

Thesaurus: A controlled list of descriptors used to indicate the concepts in a given field, showing relations between conceptually related terms and an alphabetically arranged index if the thesaurus is arranged systematically. A thesaurus usually contains scope notes and information on the system used.

Thesaurus: ”1. A compilation of terms showing synonymous, hierarchical, and other relationships and dependencies, the function of which is to provide a standardized, controlled vocabulary for information storage and retrieval. It’s component parts are an index vocabulary and a lead-in vocabulary. 2. A lexicon, especially of synonyms and antonyms in classified order.”

Heartsill Young, Editor. The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science. Chicago : American Library Association (1983). Page 228.

Transclusion: ”The inclusion, by hypertext reference, of a resource or part of a resource into another resource is called transclusion. Transclusion is normally performed automatically, without user intervention. The inclusion of images in web documents is an example of transclusion. Transclusion is a frequently used technique in business and legal document processing, where re-use of consistent and up-to-date content is essential to achieve efficiency and consistency.”

Robert J. Glushko, Editor. The Discipline of Organizing. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2013. Pages 510-511.

User Relevance Response: ”The degree of correspondence of the outputs of an information or documentation system and the needs of the user expressed by the user.”

Terminology of documentation : A selection of 1,200 basic terms published in English, French, German, Russian and Spanish. Compiled by Gernot Wersig and Ulrich Neveling. Paris : The Unesco Press. 1976. p. 17”

Virtual Library: ”A "virtual library" is not a place or a thing; rather it is the capability to provide access to information resources at other institutions across town, or across the world, using digital technologies.”

Matt Montgomery. Emory University. Copied 2021-08-21 from https://www.emory.edu/EMORY_REPORT/erarchive/1996/January/ERjan.22/1_22_96virtual_library.html

Virtual Library: ”A virtual school library is an online space, available 24/7, that is an extension of your physical library. Through your virtual library, users can find and access your digital materials. It can bring together content that you've sourced from different places. Your virtual library can also offer online help and support for your school community.”

The National Library of New Zealand. Copied 2021-08-21 from https://natlib.govt.nz/schools/school-libraries/library-services-for-teaching-and-learning/your-school-library-online/creating-a-virtual-school-library

Virtual Library: ”The worldwide collection of online books, journals and articles available on the Internet.”

PC Magazine. Copied 2021-08-21 from https://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia/term/virtual-library.

Online Resources

APA Dictionary of Psychology At https://dictionary.apa.org/

Digital Libraries. William Y. Arms, Cornell University. At: https://www.cs.cornell.edu/wya/DigLib/text/Glossary.html

Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science. Joan M. Reitz, ABC-CLIO, LLC. At: https://products.abc-clio.com/ODLIS/odlis_about.aspx

Dictionary of Archives Terminology. Society of American Archivists. At: https://dictionary.archivists.org/.

ISO 5127:2017(en), Information and documentation — Foundation and vocabulary.At: https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:5127:ed-2:v1:en

Glossary of Library & Information Science. Librarianship Studies & Information Technology. At: https://www.librarianshipstudies.com/2015/04/glossary-of-library-information-science.html

Metadata glossary. UKLON. At: http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/metadata/glossary/index.html